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Li Zejie, Chinese Academy of information and communications, et al: Research on 5g network slicing technology for meteorological disaster early warning information

Time : 17/10/2021 Author : yesxir Click : + -
        At present, the dissemination of meteorological disaster early warning information in China mainly relies on traditional communication methods. The transmission speed is limited by the network capacity and has a bottleneck, and it is difficult to meet the needs of accurate dissemination of early warning information in designated areas and remote areas. Emerging information and communication technologies such as 5g mobile communication, mobile Internet, mobile Internet of things, Tiantong satellite and fengyun-4 satellite are emerging and developing in China. The combination of new information and communication technologies and the application of early warning information dissemination can effectively solve the above problems. 5g network slicing can guarantee the network indicators such as bandwidth and delay for applications in various industries, and it is feasible to apply it to the transmission of meteorological disaster warning information.
        Therefore, this paper will study the index definition and index requirements of 5g network slice transmission of meteorological disaster warning information, and give corresponding slice design reference scheme according to different application scenarios [1]. Network slicing means that operators separate multiple end-to-end logical networks on the traditional physical network according to the business needs of users in different industries for indicators such as delay, bandwidth, security and reliability. The separated logical network includes an access network, a transmission network and a core network isolated from each other. Therefore, the application of network slicing technology can meet the needs of different application types. The 5g network slice has been defined in 3gppts23.501. By dividing the physical network into multiple logical networks to realize multiple functions of one network, operators can build multiple dedicated, virtual, isolated and customized logical networks on one physical network to meet the different needs of users in different industries for network capabilities (such as delay, bandwidth, connection number, etc.).
        5g network slicing needs to be implemented based on SA network architecture. The 3gppr15 protocol defines slice identification and end-to-end (E2E) identification user groups based on the 5gsa architecture, and explains how slices enable differentiation. Usually, only complex network and terminal configuration can realize the differentiation of a certain type of user group, while 2G / 3G / 4G / 5gnsa and other protocols lack the means of E2E to identify a certain type of user group. 5g network slice is an end-to-end architecture design, which includes multiple sub domains and involves three levels of management plane, control plane and user plane. Its end-to-end architecture is shown in Figure 1.
        The end-to-end slice management architecture mainly includes the following key components. (2) Network slice management function (nsmf) is responsible for end-to-end slice management and design. After nsmf obtains the end-to-end network slicing requirements, it generates an instance of slicing, decomposes and combines according to the capabilities of each sub domain / sub network, and transfers the deployment requirements of the sub domain / sub network to nssmf. Nsmf function is generally provided by cross domain slice manager. Nssmf reports the capabilities of subdomains / subnets to nsmf. After obtaining the decomposition deployment requirements of nsmf, nssmf realizes autonomous deployment and enabling within subdomains / subnets, and manages and monitors the sliced networks of subdomains / subnets during operation.
        Through the decomposition and cooperation of CSMF, nsmf and nssmf, the end-to-end sliced network design and instantiation deployment are completed. The full life cycle management of end-to-end slices, including the creation, monitoring and release of slice instances, such as decomposing the network requirements to each single domain of the wireless network, the bearer network and the core network, and completing the E2E configuration of slices; Collect the information of each single domain, summarize and form slice level statistical indicators, and then visually present them; Integrate with BSS system to support industry slice template design and online network slice SLA grading index. Service level agreement (SLA): an agreement formally negotiated by both parties, sometimes called service level assurance.
        It is a contract (or part of a contract) between a service provider and a customer, aiming to establish a common understanding of services, priorities, responsibilities, etc. Service level specification (SLS): it can be regarded as the technical component and indicator of SLA, and is used to define the SLA indicator parameters and relevant thresholds. At present, the industry has proposed some SLA related standards. In combination with GSMA and 3GPP standards, the SLA indicators of 5g slices mainly include user bandwidth, delay, packet reliability, throughput, positioning accuracy, isolation, etc., which are respectively defined as shown in Table 1.
        In order to understand the slice level and simplify the docking configuration with the slice supplier, the author uses the SLA palette configuration scheme in the report on 5g end-to-end slice SLA industry demand research [2] of China Institute of information and communications to analyze the 5g network slice SLA demand for meteorological disaster early warning information transmission. The SLA grading requirements palette refers to the grading mode of the data center, and defines and configures bandwidth, delay, security, trustworthiness, and self-control, as shown in Figure 2. The early warning of meteorological disasters has certain foresight and timeliness. Its purpose is to minimize the loss of human life and property caused by meteorological natural disasters.
        The transmission and release of meteorological disaster early warning information shall meet certain standards. Once the pre-determined standards are met, the meteorological disaster early warning department, as the information release department, shall timely release relevant early warning, and all departments shall take corresponding early warning measures at the first time to reduce the loss of people's lives and property as much as possible. In addition, the meteorological disaster early warning work also has a certain coverage. By improving the meteorological disaster monitoring and forecasting network, the accuracy, coverage and propagation speed of early warning information release are promoted, the "blind area" of early warning information release is eliminated, and the information dissemination efficiency is improved. Therefore, the main characteristics of meteorological disaster early warning are as follows. (1) Timeliness. Most of the meteorological natural disasters occur in a short time, and their destructive power and harm are relatively large.
        Therefore, the early warning of meteorological disasters requires relevant institutions and departments to take corresponding measures in time. (2) Accuracy. Meteorological disaster early warning needs to monitor, transmit and process a large amount of meteorological data information, and make corresponding decisions and take corresponding measures timely and accurately based on the results of processing and analysis. Accurate and reliable analysis conclusions will greatly improve the effectiveness of meteorological disaster response. Therefore, in addition to timeliness, the accuracy of disaster early warning is also crucial. (3) Openness. After the meteorological monitoring information is analyzed and the early warning information is formed, the relevant departments shall take corresponding measures to release it to the public in the first time; If the release is not timely or the relevant conclusions are concealed or fabricated, it may cause adverse effects.
        (4) Multi level. The severity of meteorological disasters varies, so the early warning mechanism should be set up at different levels from high to low to form a systematic early warning information release and transmission mechanism. Meteorological disasters are natural disasters with a high incidence, which seriously threaten the development of the country and the social economy. Meteorological disaster early warning signals involve the safety of public life and property. Therefore, the transmission of early warning information should ensure effectiveness, accuracy and wide coverage. In a short time, it is necessary to push the early warning information to a large number of mobile phone users within the coverage of 5g network, and ensure the accurate delivery of the early warning information. Therefore, when designing the network slicing scheme for the transmission of meteorological disaster early warning information, we should mainly consider the transmission requirements of real-time, small delay, accuracy, low bit error rate, wide bandwidth and ensuring that information / data are not overstocked.
        According to the transmission demand of meteorological early warning information and the classification standard of network slice, the design of network slice index is preliminarily considered as follows. (1) The user bandwidth level is B1 (1 ~ 10mbit / s): according to the analysis of meteorological disaster warning information, the current warning information transmission form for the public is text, not including pictures and videos, so the demand for single user bandwidth is small. The B1 level of 1 ~ 10mbit / s can meet the transmission demand of single user. (2) The delay level is T2 (20 ~ 50ms): the characteristics of meteorological disasters determine that the early warning information needs to be sent to all users in the designated area in a short time (1min). Therefore, for a single user, the delay level T2 is appropriate.
        (3) The isolation level is S1 (logical isolation): the meteorological disaster early warning information belongs to the public information oriented to the masses, and there is no sensitivity. It is suggested to adopt the resource preemption mechanism based on priority scheduling to achieve logical isolation. (4) The management level is m3 (operable): it involves multiple areas, and generally requires user-defined group management, new service online debugging, self troubleshooting, and control of access and access rights. It belongs to m3 operable. Compared with the traditional QoS guarantee index, for 5g new technologies and new services, 3GPP defines a new guaranteed bit rate (GBR) type based on delay, and designs a new 5gqos index (5gqosindex, 5qi) reflecting service performance to support the demand of new services for delay and reliability (see Table 2).
        A new standard 5qi is defined according to the priorities of different services and the requirements for delay, packet error rate and other indicators. The base station may select a corresponding resource scheduling scheme when establishing a protocol data unit (PDU) session according to the method in Table 2, so as to meet the requirements of low delay and high reliability. When applying the network slice to the transmission of meteorological disaster early warning information, we can refer to the solutions of the medical and power industries [4-5], and carry the transmission business of early warning information among monitoring stations, meteorological bureaus and user terminals by establishing a meteorological private network. From the perspective of business, it is mainly divided into intra station scenarios, off station scenarios, inter station and inter user terminal scenarios. There are some differences in the workflow of each part, and there are also differences in the slice design scheme.
        In the internal transmission networking part, most of the 5g based wireless access devices use wireless room sub stations for wireless access, and then access to the transmission slicing packet network (SPN) access ring through the wireless centralized baseband unit (BBU), and send the service in the detection station to the 5g core network through the SPN access ring, The MEC can be deployed in the meteorological monitoring station or the data center between stations according to the actual business needs (see Fig. 3). Some non mobile network requirements in the monitoring station can still be accessed based on the current wired office network. This part of business is mainly used for non mobile networks such as large equipment.
        Most of the traffic in the monitoring station passes through the 5g wireless G private network slice network, and then passes through the G The mtn / flexe channel slice is transmitted to the 5g core network meteorological private network slice. When the MEC is deployed in the monitoring station or the data center between the monitoring stations, the business flow will be terminated in the nearby core network slice and connected to the unified platform for meteorological early warning transmission or the data center in the monitoring station through the wired special line. The main scenario for network access outside the monitoring station is that the weather station and the public mobile terminal use the downlink channel to transmit early warning information (see Fig. 4). Through 5g wireless G public network in the Meteorological Bureau for the downlink propagation scenario of meteorological warning; According to the priority identification of service transmission, the transmission service is sent to the 5g core network via the channel established by the SPN network, and then transmitted to the user terminal.
        The networking access between monitoring stations is mainly through the network outside the station. The lower level monitoring stations across the region can be remotely connected with the upper level station / Meteorological Bureau for data transmission (see Fig. 5). The service flow of the lower level monitoring station passes through the 5g wireless G meteorological private network, and then passes through the G MTN / flexe channel slice and 5g core network meteorological slice enter the superior station / Meteorological Bureau. The 3gpp5gr17 version standard will be frozen in 2022. Meanwhile, R18 is also under planning [6]. The capability of 5g network slice and end-to-end network slice has been enhanced, further promoting the application of network slice in various industries.
        At the same time, the commercialization of 5gsa network in China has created the basic conditions for the application of end-to-end network slicing technology. The application of 5g network slice in various industries is still at the exploratory stage. In this paper, the index reference value and reference scheme of 5g network slice design are given in combination with the demand of meteorological early warning information dissemination. In the future, the design scheme needs to be further improved in combination with relevant topics and 5g technology progress. Li Zejie, Cao Lei. Research on 5g network slicing technology for meteorological disaster early warning information [J]. Information and communication technology and policy, 2022,48 (1): 75-80. Information and communication technology and policy is a professional academic journal in charge of the Ministry of industry and information technology and sponsored by China Institute of information and communication.
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