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Using blockchain technology to build a trusted trading environment for etc

Time : 13/01/2022 Author : naspcv Click : + -
        The author tries to discuss how to use blockchain technology to solve the problems of heterogeneous multi-party consistent ledger and distributed digital identity authentication in etc consumption, and use the distributed ledger and distributed network operation ability of blockchain to help etc quickly promote to other more convenient automobile manufacturing and consumption industries. In June 2019, the Ministry of transport issued the implementation plan for accelerating the promotion of electronic non stop express toll collection (etc) application services on expressways, proposing that by the end of this year, the installation rate and utilization rate of etc should be increased to more than 80% and more than 90% respectively. At the end of 2019, news about the surprise installation of etc and the addition of etc entrances at toll stations around the country, as well as the reduction or cancellation of manual entrances, have been constantly emerging. There are indeed many strange and even suspected illegal coercive actions in the schedule for the installation of etc in various places.
        This kind of mandatory installation and use of etc has also aroused some social reactions. For example, in the CCTV news program, Bai Yansong said: "no matter how much etc is helpful to the improvement of traffic efficiency, coercive means must not be adopted. The rights of a few people who do not want to use etc should also be guaranteed. This is not only clearly stated by the superior competent department, but also a sign of social progress.". Of course, today we are not discussing such a social debate as whether etc should be installed and used compulsorily. Instead, we use the technical perspective and consumer psychoanalysis to observe why there are always some people who are not interested in etc? Since this is a three-party profit-making thing that improves the traffic efficiency of the people, saves the highway management cost, and saves energy and emissions, why are there many different voices?.
        First, let's learn something about etc. Etc (Electronic Toll Collection) is an electronic toll collection system. It is a special short-range communication between the on-board electronic tag (OBU) installed on the windshield of the vehicle and the microwave antenna (RSU) on the etc lane of the toll station. It uses computer networking technology to conduct background settlement with the bank, so as to achieve the purpose of paying the expressway or bridge fees without parking at the expressway or bridge toll station. Etc is a non parking toll collection technology widely adopted by countries all over the world since the late 1980s. It has been more than 20 years since China first used etc technology on the capital Expressway in 1996. However, the popularization of etc has been relatively slow.
        Through some interviews and consumer psychological analysis, the following several concerns of some people about the installation and use of etc are summarized. Some of them are about the etc business and technology itself, and some are about people's ideas. But in fact, they are more about multi-party trust. It has been more than 30 years since the birth of etc. since its birth, the charging objects are mainly vehicles rather than individuals. It can be said that the charging account system based on vehicles is inborn, and there was no personal mobile payment technology at that time. However, in the current daily vehicle consumption, there are two kinds of accounting processing demands, namely, the separation of vehicle (enterprise vehicle) and individual (individual, vehicle sharer, car borrower, etc.).
        The first is the two in one etc co branded card jointly issued by the transportation industry and banks, which has the functions of etc pass and finance; The second type: Bookkeeping card, which has only bookkeeping function but no financial function. The deduction is made by binding the bank credit card or savings card; The third type: stored value card, which needs to be stored in advance to be used. The first type has certain security risks and has been stopped. Currently, the latter two types of cards are mainly on the market. However, no matter what kind of card, the vehicle and the payment account are bound by one vehicle (OBU), one card and one account, and the way that one OBU can adapt to multiple payment cards cannot be realized. For example, when a friend borrows a car from him / her, the etc fee generated is recorded on his / her own etc account card which is bound in advance by the vehicle. The friend does not directly pay the passing fee, which brings some troubles to the relationship between friends.
        In terms of account model processing, the current etc bookkeeping consumption mode is somewhat rigid and inflexible. Such practical problems make it impossible for consumers to simply and transparently know whether there are wrong deductions and disorderly deductions in the accounts of expressway toll points, etc clearing and settlement centers, banks and other parties in the process of etc consumption. This is a major reason why consumers do not trust etc. I would like to remind you by the way that the etc bill can be queried through the provincial etc official account or app. However, as the etc official account or other relevant etc applications belong to the Internet low-frequency app, it is often difficult to really and effectively provide consumers with a unified and consistent bill query.
        This is very different from the consumption experience of actively checking with paper bills after paying the toll in cash. It was often reported that the security of funds and accounts of etc cards was stolen, which is another problem affecting consumers' confidence in etc security. However, this problem mainly appeared in the early stage of the promotion of etc. in the scene of two in one etc co branded cards, and consumers opened a small amount of secret free payment business of bank cards. The swindlers used the mobile POS machine to use the flash payment function of the two in one card inserted on the windshield to swipe the user's account funds. In essence, this has nothing to do with the system security of etc, but the security of bank card consumption.
        If you have this two-in-one etc card for accounting and consumption, you need to replace it with the current etc card for accounting and payment separation mode or remove your etc card from the OBU (windshield device) at ordinary times and turn off the small amount secret free payment function of the card. As for the accounting security of ETC system itself, the author has made a detailed understanding of the security mechanism of etc. At present, the data encryption and authentication of etc adopts 3DES symmetric encryption technology, centralized hierarchical (Ministry and province) decentralized (business and user) key generation and management system, and relies on centralized encryption machine and transaction authentication system to ensure the data security of etc transaction processing.
        The ETC system does not adopt the more secure and flexible asymmetric encryption system, but adopts the old 3DES centralized symmetric encryption technology. Although 3DES is far less difficult than asymmetric encryption technology in terms of cracking difficulty and password management security, the author believes that it is sufficient to ensure the data security of ETC system in view of the current application scenario of etc, and the risk of systematic cracking of centralized encryption system is extremely low. However, it is precisely this 3DES and centralized hierarchical (Ministry and province) decentralized (business and user) key management system that has buried the biggest technical obstacle to the popularization of etc and the use of other consumption scenarios. I will put this to the last point.
        With the recent promotion of etc charging mode in supermarkets, hospitals, parks and residential areas, etc's privacy data security has become a topic of concern to consumers. For example, some people are worried that if they go to a nightclub party, if they use etc to pay for parking, there will be a risk of personal privacy disclosure. In fact, with the popularity of e-commerce and mobile payment, the privacy and security of personal consumption is not only an issue of etc, but also a common topic of the whole mobile Internet. However, since the accounting entity of etc is a vehicle rather than an individual, vehicle privacy is not equal to personal privacy, and individuals do not have absolute control and custody over the vehicle like mobile phones (at present, consumers only need to input the accounting card number and license plate number inserted on the windshield to query the vehicle consumption details through the etc official account or app of each province, without personal authorization).
        It can be imagined that if most parking lots use etc to pay fees, there is indeed a risk of privacy disclosure. Indeed, compared with the traditional cash payment mode, the current etc electronic bill acquisition process is cumbersome. Although there are entry points for obtaining invoices on official account or apps of various operating platforms of etc, consumers can also obtain etc invoices through the official toll road electronic invoice service platform (), but consumers need to select the invoice platform, register an account number, bind an etc card, issue invoices, download electronic bills and other processes. This is not a problem for enterprise Invoicing and truck invoicing. After all, there is a strong demand for enterprise financial reimbursement.
        But for individuals and ordinary consumers, the process is a little troublesome. Because most ordinary consumers' demand for etc invoicing is not a strong demand for financial reimbursement of enterprises, but a weak personal demand for verifying whether the charges are compliant and whether the consumption is correct. However, this weak demand is enough to affect consumers' confidence in the use of etc. after all, manual bills are simpler and more direct. Bank financial derivatives are abnormal products of domestic etc promotion process. In fact, commercial banks only play the role of accounting treatment of fee withholding in the etc industry, and there is no difference in essence between the payment of water, electricity and gas fees. However, due to the need for numerous installation outlets in the rapid promotion of domestic etc, the reduction and exemption of OBU installation fees, the discount of etc fees and other cost expenditures, commercial banks have acted as the operating body in this activity.
        Of course, the money of commercial banks will not be wasted, and the cost will be transferred to the bank's card opening account, various financial management and small consumer loan products. Therefore, we can understand that part of the reason why etc is feared is that consumers originally only installed a terminal with a non-stop charging system, but for this reason, they really need to attach a bunch of financial products. Here, let's talk about the issue of etc small consumer loans. Some banks will use the etc debit card + debit card mode to enable small consumer loans by default. That is, when your debit card balance is insufficient, small consumer loans will be issued by default. If the loan is overdue, it will affect personal credit. Do you think the routine is a bit deep?.
        At the same time, as the etc deduction is not real-time synchronous deduction, there is a phenomenon that the balance is not enough for deduction in either the etc debit card + savings card or the etc debit card + credit card mode. At this time, the concept of Expressway blacklist will be triggered. Isn't it terrible?. In short, although the deduction is automated, the possible personal financial risks are not transparent and the boundary is not obvious. It is difficult for individuals to grasp whether the risks are beyond the boundary. At present, the author does not know whether the etc blacklist is included in the data collection scope of the central bank credit information center, but this unpredictability of potential risks has deepened people's fear of etc. The above is the author's analysis of etc consumer psychology and technology, and summarizes some doubts or concerns about the installation and use of etc.
        In the author's opinion, the core is that it is difficult for consumers to verify and confirm the accounts of etc deduction at low cost, and the cumbersome process of etc application and installation. First of all, the heterogeneous multi-party accounting treatment of etc is opaque and the bills are inconsistent, which brings systematic trust problems in personal privacy protection and leads to consumers' distrust of etc consumption. The change of expressway toll collection mode from manual mode to etc automatic mode has the greatest impact on consumers, which is the essential change in the process of accounting and reconciliation. Although etc saves the traffic time of vehicles, the time and cost of personal accounting processing increase.
        This change is actually a change from distributed accounting to centralized accounting. Yes, you are right. The manual charging method is actually a distributed bookkeeping process. The witnesses of bookkeeping and reconciliation are the collector and the consumer. As it is a cash transaction, the transaction accuracy is verified face-to-face and the fees and bills are settled. The consumer does not need to worry about the safety and accuracy of the cash balance account book. However, the automatic charging mode of etc is quite different. This mode first separates the consumption into two parts: Accounting and fund deduction, thus giving rise to the witness problem of accounting accuracy and deduction accuracy. In fact, the accounting process of etc toll settlement is a heterogeneous multi-party transaction process. According to the different business participants, it can be simply divided into three parties (in fact, it is multi-party, and the three parties only understand it simply): etc toll system (different road owners), etc provincial clearing and settlement Center (there are national clearing and settlement centers across provinces), and bank accounting system (various deposit banks).
        The etc charging system is responsible for consumption bookkeeping, the clearing and settlement center is responsible for sorting and settlement, and the bank accounting system is responsible for actual deduction. All three parties have their own isomerized account books. It is a troublesome and costly task for consumers to judge whether a consumption is accurate. First of all, consumers need to log in to the official account or app of the provincial etc clearing and settlement center to query the etc consumption records, and then log in to the personal banking system of the bound bank to query the bank's capital transaction records, so as to compare whether the funds are consistent, and then check whether these transaction records are indeed stored by memory. I think few people are willing to check the accuracy of etc consumption in this way, and of course, it is impossible to build the trust chain of consumer groups to etc.
        This is the most core issue about questioning the accuracy of etc's accounting, and also the reason why consumers worry about false deduction, false deduction and miscalculation. Today, when mobile payment and secret free micro payment are very developed, we open up to hundreds of various e-commerce order records, third-party payment records and bank credit card bill records every month. If we check the accuracy of capital transactions one by one, it is actually very difficult to complete. Therefore, we can only passively believe that the payment process is free of problems and errors. Moreover, with the promotion of etc in various parking lots such as supermarkets, hospitals, parks and residential areas, the original closed etc charging and settlement network will become an open trading environment. With the participation of various charging owners and systems, it is more difficult to believe the accuracy and consistency of these accounts.
        Using the blockchain distributed ledger technology can effectively solve the bill consistency problem of heterogeneous multi-party bookkeeping. Etc distributed bookkeeping nodes are deployed in the etc charging system, clearing settlement center and bank accounting system, and the node ledger automatic synchronization mechanism is used to ensure the consistency of heterogeneous ledgers of all parties. The blockchain tamper proof advantage is used to improve the credibility of ledgers, and the accounting Traceability Technology is used to build heterogeneous multi-party consistent ledgers, It realizes the automatic verification function of funds deducted from the bank to the clearing preference to the transaction, helps consumers reduce the verification cost of accounting processing, and provides the credibility of the overall etc consumption network. A reliable heterogeneous multi-party consistency ledger needs to have self inspection and traceability functions in terms of fund flow, multi-party preference and transaction accuracy. It needs to build a multi-party consistency ledger model based on mathematical self-determination, which can enable consumers to automatically associate and compare settlement bills and transaction bills from bank statements, thus eliminating the consumer's bookkeeping costs and returning to the distributed bookkeeping system.
        The etc toll settlement network based on the blockchain distributed Ledger has a more secure, open and flexible settlement account processing capacity. By connecting provincial settlement centers to the etc transaction network, the inter provincial traffic differentiation and point-to-point settlement strategy of expressway are realized; It can realize cross provincial settlement without the need of national settlement centers. Under the security guarantee of distributed digital certificate, the whole network can open the charging and settlement interface, and realize many consumption scenarios such as parking lot charging, automatic car washing charging, etc. in supermarkets, hospitals, parks and residential areas. For example, the etc card has four stages: card making, primary issuance (Provincial Center), secondary issuance (Network) and user use. The OBU has seven stages: ESAM (module manufacturer), its center, OBU manufacturer, Central Primary issuance (Provincial Center), network secondary issuance, installation activation and user use. As for the meaning of each stage, the
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