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Blockchain technology becomes a new weapon for copyright protection

Time : 26/07/2022 Author : io9lt1 Click : + -
        "In the network field, with the continuous emergence of new technologies such as artificial intelligence, cloud computing, big data and business models such as network aggregation, the development of new formats such as intelligent language, network live broadcasting and E-sports is active, which has brought many new problems and challenges to copyright work. In the next step, we should comprehensively use various means to provide more powerful services and guarantees for copyright innovation and creation." On April 26, the 2018 China Internet Copyright Protection Conference was held in Beijing. Yu Cike, director of the copyright management department of the national copyright administration, said at the conference. In the afternoon of the same day, at the sub session of "new technology innovation and network copyright innovation", Yu Cike once again said: "technology and copyright have always been accompanied by each other. Technology is always the driving force of copyright. Whether it is printing technology, photography technology, electronic technology, or network technology, including artificial intelligence, big data, and now particularly popular blockchain technology, it will bring many challenges and opportunities to the creation, protection, application, management and service of copyright.
        ”。 From alphago to Microsoft Xiaobing to manuscript writing robot, artificial intelligence has launched an "attack" on human culture. The emergence of artificial intelligence creations, on the one hand, has provided a powerful catalyst for the cultural industry, and on the other hand, has put forward new requirements for the traditional copyright system. Liu Kang, AI project director of Tencent, introduced that dreamwriter, an automated manuscript writing robot developed by Tencent finance, can write in finance, sports, real estate, games and other industries, generate reports in real time, and realize personalized distribution. Song Ruihua, chief scientist of Microsoft Xiaobing of Microsoft (Asia) Internet Engineering Institute, also said that through image recognition, deep learning, language model based on recurrent neural network (the general term of two artificial neural networks, one is time recurrent neural network and the other is structural recurrent neural network), Microsoft Xiaobing has been able to create poetry.
        Then, is the artificial intelligence creation a work and thus protected by the copyright law? Liu Kang believes that the original author behind the machine is still human. The environment and materials for the growth of machine learning and the logic and algorithms accumulated by it all need human guidance. In this process, human beings have paid hard work. Wang Qian, a professor at East China University of political science and law, believes that the content generated by artificial intelligence cannot form a work because it does not meet the requirements of originality and the generation subject is not human. "First of all, the uniqueness required by the copyright law means that a work can reflect the wisdom and talents of the author and display the personality of the author. It is the personality of the author that has left a unique mark on the work. Without this, we can not call any result a work.
        The content generated by artificial intelligence is the result of using algorithms, rules and templates. No matter how complex these settings are, artificial intelligence only executes the algorithms, rules and templates. The articles generated in this way do not conform to the content protected by the copyright law ". Wang Qian continued, secondly, one of the legislative purposes of the copyright law is to encourage the creation of works, and the way to achieve the encouraging effect is to give the author a set of exclusive rights mechanism to ensure that other people use the works with the permission of the author and pay the remuneration to the author, so that the author can get the due return from the creation and maintain the motivation to continue to create. Machines, on the other hand, will not be encouraged by the protection of works by the copyright law, thus generating creative power.
        However, Feng Gang, a judge of Beijing Intellectual Property Court, said that the current problem is that the content produced by artificial intelligence has great value, and this value will become more and more extensive and larger. Who does these values belong to in law, how its legal nature is fixed, what are the requirements for use, and how should we treat them if they are used without permission & hellip& hellip; Many practical problems remain to be solved. Feng Gang believes that artificial intelligence is made by human intelligence as the premise. The purpose of its creation is to produce artificial intelligence achievements, which have high market value.
        At present, according to the strict definition of the traditional copyright law, the content produced by artificial intelligence may not be regarded as a work. However, whether this value can be used as a quasi copyright protection similar to copyright or as a generalized copyright protection can be further studied and explored. Technology is a double-edged sword. The development of new technologies has driven the development of new formats of the copyright industry. A large number of high-quality content can be distributed and disseminated through the platform, but at the same time, it also brings about network copyright protection problems caused by massive and anonymous illegal dissemination. The reporter learned that in recent years, the forms of piracy and infringement mainly include aggregation of illegal chains, online disk sharing, pirated small websites and illegal resource stations.
        For example, some small pirated websites with "three no websites" (no ICP license, no industrial and commercial registration, and no license for information network transmission of audio-visual programs, etc.) make use of the network's concealment and use technical means such as chain theft, network disk and cloud storage to publish and disseminate a large number of pirated and infringing content, and gain huge profits by joining various advertising alliances to publish illegal advertisements, It has seriously disrupted the network copyright ecology and the network security order. The 2017 annual report on China's Internet Copyright Protection released on the same day of the conference shows that with the development of technology and the evolution of business models, new forms of infringement emerge one after another, bringing great difficulties to the enforcement of Internet copyright.
        Take the online disk infringement as an example, the infringing entrance, player and content storage are all provided by different subjects, and it is extremely difficult to pursue responsibility according to the current copyright legal system. Gong Yu, the founder and CEO of iqiyi, said at the conference about the form and harm of video network Piracy: "now scale piracy has been basically suppressed. The situation of online disk sharing has improved, but it is still relatively common. The most hidden piracy is actually video playback, which has great indirect damage to the video industry." For example, he said that every second and every frame of a 100 minute film has devoted too much effort to the creation team, while the online video has been reduced to seven or eight minutes through ghost animals, subtitles, expressions, voice, etc., resulting in the audience not going to see the full version of the film after watching it.
        Li Daren, vice president of Zhihu technology, also said that the rights and interests of original authors of Zhihu are often infringed. For example, many excellent content creators publish courses on Zhihu, and relevant audio will be sold at low prices on some e-commerce platforms; On some social platforms, we can often see content sharing from Zhihu, many of which are not authorized by the author; There are also some we media accounts that have been carrying the content of Zhihu for many years & hellip& hellip;。 Yu Cike said that the national copyright administration still regards the Internet as the main position of copyright supervision, strengthens law enforcement, and significantly increases the illegal cost; Make full use of new technologies such as big data, cloud computing and big data to improve the accuracy of online law enforcement; We will raise the upper limit of legal compensation for infringement and introduce a punitive compensation system to make infringers pay a heavier price.
        It can be seen that in the era of national creativity, many "micro copyrights" have become the mainstream of copyright, and a large number of copyright sources are highly decentralized and diversified. Yu Jianing, director of the Industrial Economy Research Institute of the information center of the Ministry of industry and information technology, said that the current demand for users' payment is highly rising, and the payment habits of the entire content industry have gradually formed. Information consumption is no longer empty talk, and the demand for "micro copyright" is rapidly expanding. In this case, taking the production of short videos as an example, people want to reference some video resources of others in the process of self-making. It is not clear how to achieve legal reference, payment and sharing, and some new technologies are needed to solve it.
        In the face of new problems and challenges in copyright protection, administrative law enforcement departments, various network platforms, experts and scholars have explored effective ways to combat copyright infringement and piracy from the perspectives of system construction and technological innovation. Chen Hongbing, director of the China Office of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), said at the conference that the construction of Internet copyright rules brooks no delay. From the international perspective, the basic norms of Internet copyright are still the World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Convention and the world intellectual property organization performance and audio recording treaty formulated in the 1990s, and the "safe haven principle" is still widely applicable. The background of this principle is that the Internet has just entered the commercial application.
        Nowadays, with the acceleration of digital transformation and the rapid growth of the commercial value of the Internet, the simple application of the above rules may be difficult to adapt to the new situation. In particular, the simple application of notification and deletion methods may have a great impact on business. In terms of technological innovation, the reporter has noticed that nowadays, blockchain technology has been applied to China's original content trading platform and has begun to play its role in the field of copyright protection. Yu Jianing introduced that the blockchain is actually a series of books that cannot be tampered with. There are three very key elements for recording copyright, namely, creation is right confirmation, transaction is authorization, and discovery is right protection; Through the blockchain technology, the author, content and time of digital works are bound together, and all evidences are fixed on the chain. In this way, the possibility of illegal counterfeiting and infringement is further reduced; In addition, data will become valuable assets, and sharing data can gain benefits.
        Qi Aimin, President of the network and big data Strategy Research Institute of Chongqing University, also believes that blockchain technology can be applied to copyright registration, as well as copyright licensing and transfer, which helps to solve the pain point of the difficulty in identifying and safeguarding the rights of the copyright industry. Cheng Wu, vice president of Tencent group and chief executive officer of Tencent pictures, said that the times are advancing and technologies are changing with each passing day. Under the new cultural and creative strategy, the protection of intellectual property rights also requires the cooperation of the government, industry and users to promote the high-quality development of China's cultural and creative industry.
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