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The beacon of the public chain circuit rises again, and the new public chain of move is coming to the fore

Time : 05/08/2022 Author : 4vp62l Click : + -
        Since the birth of blockchain, the whole industry has experienced several cycles. At present, Ethereum, which has the richest ecology and the largest influence, has been criticized for its performance and cost problems, and has been constantly challenged by rising stars in the cycle. In the last cycle, a number of new layer1 projects emerged, such as Solana, polygon, fantom and near, which all tried to improve and explore the underlying public chain. As the cycle enters a new bear market, a new wave of public chains is emerging. Among them, the most popular ones are undoubtedly the Libra series projects using the move programming language: Aptos and Sui.
        In 2019, the then Facebook (now renamed meta) announced the launch of the global cryptocurrency Libra (later renamed Diem). Later, due to regulatory and other problems, the Libra project failed to take shape. However, this also made the team realize that to truly establish an innovative Web3 project, it must completely jump out of the traditional field and enter the encryption field. The developers of Aptos and Sui were the core developers of Libra. They inherited the programming language of Libra project -- move language and built these two new public chains. Move language is said to be the most suitable language for writing smart contracts.
        Many people compare it with the current mainstream solidity language and think it is better than solidity. This is mainly because move has been optimized for blockchain assets since its birth. Almost every blockchain project has its own encryption assets. Asset value growth is not only the result of project development, but also the driving force of project development. Asset security should have been the top priority of project development. However, the frequent asset theft and asset loss events in the encryption industry make many investors who have not yet entered the industry afraid. According to the data statistics of slow fog, there were about 100 defi security incidents in the first half of 2022, with a loss of more than US $1.63 billion, of which project defects and contract loopholes were the first four reasons.
        Move is a language for manipulating digital assets. At first, the Facebook team developed the move language to serve Diem and build a global financial and monetary infrastructure. Therefore, move must be able to code various assets and business logic that constitute the financial infrastructure. In the move language, more emphasis is placed on assets and resources. In their words, it is "first class resources". Like most programming languages, solidity treats tokens or encrypted assets as a value. The process of asset transfer is realized by adding and subtracting the value of the account. For example, if Alice wants to transfer 10 tokens to Bob, she should first transfer Alice's balance to - 10 and then bob's balance to + 10.
        In the process of adding and subtracting multiple asset accounts, security vulnerabilities are likely to occur. Only by relying on the rigor of the code can property security be ensured. However, in the move language, the asset is redefined as a resource type and is no longer a string or numeric variable. The move programming language abstracts four attributes of resources, namely, copy, key, drop and store. Through different combinations of these four attributes, users can easily define any type of resources. The concept of resource first provides a great help for programmers to write safe and effective code.
        As Damir, the programming engineer of Sui's development team, said: "once you start thinking like an object, rather than an abstract thinking built on programming primitives such as hash mapping, you can always know what you are doing, just like having unlimited expressiveness and clearly stating types & mdash; & mdash; what was in the past and what is now." This design makes the operation of resources more concrete and visible. Such as binding with an account. The resource data must be bound under the account. Therefore, the corresponding resource asset can only exist after the account is allocated. As long as the resource is taken out, it must have a destination. Either it is passed as a return value, that is, it flows to an account, or it is directly destroyed.
        It can be understood that the token movement of move is a transfer from one account to another, while the solidity is an addition and subtraction method, first subtracting at one place and then adding at another place. And then the access rights of assets. In solidity, the data is stored in the contract in a centralized manner. When the contract is vulnerable, once the hacker obtains the contract authority, all user data will be attacked. In move, the data is stored in the account that owns it, not in the contract. There are many modules in move. Modules are programs that can create, transfer and store assets, similar to smart contracts in Ethereum.
        Move specifies that only public module functions can be accessed by other modules. Each resource (object) is stored in a module controlled by the owner's account. When you want to access or modify a module, you must have the signature of the module owner. The signer has the highest level of permission in move and is the only entity that can add resources to the account. This function allows the ownership information and privileges of digital assets to be maintained in smart contracts. If the asset is sent to the smart contract, the ownership will not change. In this case, even if the smart contract is broken by the attacker, the asset will not be lost.
        Move has learned from the security events of solidity, added many features on the basis of solidity, and made great innovations in the underlying security design, making the system more secure and reliable. ● static call. What is a static call? Static invocation is opposite to dynamic invocation. When a program calls another program, if the target to be called cannot be determined until runtime, the call is called dynamic call; On the contrary, if the program can determine the target to be called before running, and the target cannot be changed during running, the call is called static call. All calls in solidity are realized through dynamic calls. Since the call object cannot be determined, circular calls may be caused, which brings great security risks.
        For example, the Dao attack and the polynetwork cross chain attack are similar events. ● formal verification. Formal verification is to prove the security of programs by mathematical means. The move team has developed the moveprover tool for users, which can use mathematical means to test and prove the reliability of the contract. Developers can run the test in a few minutes, so that they can find errors in the code before deployment. In short, move is a language created specifically for blockchain assets and smart contracts, which is significantly better than solidity in terms of security and verifiability.
        Aptos was founded in early February this year, but inherited the development achievements of the Libra team in the past few years, aiming to pursue the development of blockchain security, high performance, scalability and scalability. Its core developers are all developers in the original Libra project. On March 15 this year, Aptos released the developer test network. In May, it launched the incentive test network (ait1), providing developers and partners with a test platform similar to the main network, and providing incentives to all participants who help ensure network security. Aptos incentive test network 2 (ait2) started on July 1 and ended on July 22, with the theme of pledge.
        There are more than 225 community nodes participating in ait2, which are distributed in 44 countries and 110 cities around the world. Each successful participant receives 500 Aptos tokens. In addition, the top 10% of voting nodes receive an additional 200 Aptos tokens. Aptos said in its blog post that its test network has reached more than 20000 nodes. At the same time, the test network can verify and synchronize more than 10000 transactions (TPS) per second, and the delay is sub second. It is moving towards more than 100000 TPS. In addition to using the more secure move language as the development language, Aptos has adopted the optimized Byzantine consensus "proof of stack diembft" in terms of consensus. In the past three years, it has carried out four iterations in terms of consensus to achieve high transaction throughput, low latency and more energy saving.
        Aptos's BFT protocol keeps the network running smoothly and maintains world-class speed. Aptos uses the reputation system to update the rotation of verifiers and uses the "pacemaker" to vote synchronously. The system fully validates the transaction in less than one second (usually referred to as a measure of "finalization time"), which makes it one of the fastest blockchains in production. To ensure security, Aptos also enables a large number of validators for testing. In order to prevent the key from being lost or stolen, Aptos has also set up an account key recovery and rotation protocol, specifically, Aptos supports any account to rotate its private key, and verifiers can also rotate their consensus keys regularly.
        To prevent key loss, Aptos is also developing a new key recovery technology that can be directly integrated into the blockchain account model. Aptos advocates that layer1 blockchain should bear more responsibility for "scalability", so as to improve mainstream adoption. In the planning of improving throughput and final deterministic speed, Aptos plans to completely separate consensus protocol from transaction execution to speed up the broadcast of transactions. Aptos also optimizes the data structure of authentication and related state storage to improve performance. When verifying the ledger status (such as account balance, smart contract, etc.), the small-scale merkletree in the memory is valid, but the large-scale merkletree cannot be written to the persistent storage.
        To solve this problem, Aptos is exploring cache and version control optimized by access mode to design authenticated data structures, and Aptos is also developing support for large accounts. The development of blockchain is very fast. In order to meet the new needs, how to upgrade without stopping after the release of the agreement has become a system requirement. Scalability is another focus of Aptos to solve the problem that it is difficult to make major protocol improvement after startup. Therefore, Aptos manages and configures the block verifiers directly through the status on the chain, so that the community can quickly perform the upgrade after voting. Aptos's design has withstood the test in the past few years, and it has not experienced downtime in several major upgrades.
        Aptos held an Aptos hacking song. At the end of June this year, Aptos launched an ecosystem funding program of US $200 million. The funding categories include six categories, namely developer tools, SDK, libraries, documents, guides and tutorials; Tools and frameworks for development, governance, defi and NFT; Core protocol contributions: token standards, libraries, protocol upgrades, etc; Open source and public products; Educational initiatives; Application. The development team of Sui is mystenlabs. They designed their own high-performance layer1 proof of interest (POS) blockchain Sui, which was released in March this year.
        Like Aptos, Sui also uses Diem's development language move, but Sui's object model is slightly different from Aptos. Currently, Sui has released their economic white paper, but the development progress is slow. In terms of the use of move language, Sui has upgraded and adjusted the language so that the language can write smart contracts for both homogeneous encrypted assets (FT) and non homogeneous (NFT) assets. In terms of scalability related to network performance, Sui focuses on transaction parallelism, that is, the network can process multiple transactions at the same time.
        In most blockchains, blockchain transactions must be conducted in order, and there is often no connection or dependence between these transactions. This limits the expansion of transaction volume. While Sui can lock the relevant data of a transaction and realize independent verification, so as to complete the transaction parallel processing. In terms of consensus protocol, Sui uses BFT Byzantine consensus for transactions with subordinate relationships, and uses Byzantine broadcast algorithm for parallel verification for independent transactions. Therefore, communication between nodes is reduced while ensuring high TPS, so as to achieve extremely low delay. This month, Sui will launch the incentive test network, which has been opened for registration. The Sui foundation will reward 2000 Sui tokens for each test network wave participated by the verifier.
        According to the route, there are three waves, three of which have been identified as subjects, namely, network, pledge and upgrade. Based on the experience and lessons of solidity, move language has made innovations and improvements in many aspects, greatly improved its security, and is more suitable for the development of smart contracts. The new public chains based on the move language have also brought greater imagination to the development of layer1. With top investment institutions entering the market one after another, the final winner of the public chain circuit is still unknown. Return to Sohu to see more.
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