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Jd.com released a white paper on blockchain technology that will be applied to 6 scenarios (with download)

Time : 09/07/2021 Author : 2xg5kw Click : + -
        On March 22, JD released the white paper on JD blockchain Technology (2018). According to the white paper, as early as 2016, JD group fully launched the application exploration and R & D practice of blockchain technology in JD business scenarios, and successively implemented different blockchain applications in the fields of supply chain, finance, insurance fraud prevention, big data security, government affairs and the public sector, In this process, a large number of blockchain deployment experience and underlying technology R & D capabilities have been accumulated. Pei Jian, vice president of JD group and head of the big data platform and product research and development department, said that JD really has the business needs of blockchain, such as real estate evaluation, transaction clearing and settlement, second-hand trading, commodity consistency, qualification filing, supply chain traceability, charity, contract anti-counterfeiting, electronic invoice and open API.
 
        Zhang Zuoyi, product manager of the blockchain traceability project of JD y business unit, also said that the marginal cost of the blockchain remodeling supply chain is very low, and brands and suppliers can actively participate, and the income is far greater than the expenditure. Previously, JD's full link cross-border logistics system and JD Y's blockchain anti-counterfeiting platform will be connected with each other. With the combination of cross-border logistics ecosystem, blockchain, big data and other technologies, a cross-border goods precise traceability ecosystem has been built, which effectively links the information of production, transportation, warehousing, customs clearance, inspection and distribution, improves the traceability of goods, realizes the visual display of the whole supply chain, and creates a safe and reliable consumer market environment.
 
        This 42 page white paper gives a comprehensive introduction to JD's thinking and application of blockchain. The following is a partial excerpt. For the download link of the complete report, please reply at the back of the logistics information official account: JD blockchain. Since the 1970s, with the rapid development of cryptography technology, distributed network, consensus algorithm and hardware storage and computing capacity, the conditions for realizing the establishment of consensus mechanism among multi-agent through technical means have become increasingly mature, providing a new solution to solve the trust risk of intermediary agencies, reduce transaction costs and improve collaboration efficiency in the multi-agent environment. In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto published a paper entitled bitcoin: a peer-to-peer electronic cash system, which described in detail how to create a decentralized electronic trading system.
 
        This system does not need to be established on the basis of mutual trust between the trading parties. For the first time, the consensus mechanism between the trading entities has been established through technical means. The "blockchain" technology is the basic technology of this electronic trading system. Ethereum is another pioneering blockchain project after bitcoin. It released a white paper at the end of 2013. Ethereum pioneered the combination of smart contracts and blockchain. Based on the establishment of consensus mechanism between trading entities, it solved the problem of commitment fulfillment between trading entities by automatically triggering executable electronic contracts, effectively promoting the further development of blockchain industrial applications.
 
        In recent years, the continuous development of blockchain technology and the ensuing digital currency boom have attracted wide attention from geeks to it technology circle, financial field, industrial economy, government and public organizations, media and public opinion, and carried out extensive and beneficial exploration and practice around blockchain technology research, industrial application, and policy supervision. The mature application of blockchain technology will take some time, but the idea of multi-agent consensus and coordination mechanism brought by it will have a profound impact on social governance and business operation. Blockchain technology is a new distributed infrastructure and computing paradigm that uses block chain data structure to verify and store data, uses distributed node consensus algorithm to generate and update data, uses cryptography to ensure the security of data transmission and access, and uses smart contracts composed of automated script codes to program and operate data.
 
        To put it simply, in the blockchain system, the transaction data generated by each participant will be packaged into a data block every time. The data blocks will be arranged in chronological order to form a chain of data blocks. Each participant has the same data chain and cannot unilaterally tamper with it. Any information can be modified only with the consent of the agreed proportion of participants, and only new information can be added, It is impossible to delete or modify the old information, so as to realize information sharing and consistent decision-making among multiple entities, and ensure that the identity of each entity and the transaction information between entities are tamper free, open and transparent. Today, with the development of blockchain, many kinds of blockchain projects have emerged. We have sorted out the technical commonalities of these blockchain projects: the four main parts of block, account, consensus and smart contract constitute the general model of the current blockchain system.
 
        The participant identity is represented by asymmetric key pairs, and the current information is recorded in some form of state database. This part is called "account" (Note: Ethereum and fabric represent the account model, while bitcoin is the utxo model). Observing the blockchain from the perspective of technology composition helps us to uncover its mystery, realistically analyze the blockchain, reveal its essential characteristics, and understand the internal logic of its value. As mentioned above, blockchain is not a brand-new technology, but a combined innovation combining a variety of existing technologies. It is a new form of distributed encrypted storage system. In essence, blockchain is a robust and secure distributed state machine. Typical technical components include consensus algorithm, P2P communication, cryptography, database technology and virtual machine.
 
        This also constitutes five essential core capabilities of the blockchain:. Store data & mdash& mdash; Due to the development of database technology and hardware storage and computing capabilities, the size of the blockchain continues to rise with the accumulation of time. With mature hardware storage and computing capabilities, it becomes possible for many entities to store a large amount of the same data at the same time. Shared data & mdash& mdash; From the consensus algorithm, all entities participating in the blockchain automatically reach a consensus through the agreed decision-making mechanism and share the same trusted data ledger. Tamper proof and privacy protection & mdash& mdash; Originated from the use of cryptography, it ensures the security of the identity of each subject and the common information through public key, private key, hash algorithm and other cryptography tools.
 
        Digital contract & mdash& mdash; Originated from the virtual machine technology, the generated cross agent digital smart contract is written into the blockchain system, and the execution of the digital contract is driven by the preset trigger conditions. Blockchain has the characteristics of decentralization, point-to-point transmission, transparency, traceability, non tampering and data security. It can be used to solve some pain points of existing businesses and innovate business models. The following will focus on analyzing and introducing the typical application scenarios of blockchain in the fields of supply chain, finance, government affairs and public services. The application analysis of these scenarios is based on JD's experience in applying blockchain technology and JD's own application planning for blockchain technology. It is hoped that the experience sharing will cause resonance and communication among peers and partners in the field.
 
        The supply chain is composed of many participants, and there is a lot of interaction and cooperation. The information is discretely stored in their respective links and systems, lacking transparency. The lack of smooth information makes it difficult for all participants to accurately understand the real-time status and existing problems of related matters, and affects the supply chain coordination efficiency. When there is a dispute between the subjects, it takes time and effort to prove and pursue responsibility. In the future, the market scope of enterprises will become larger and larger, and the logistics links will show the characteristics of multi regions and long time span, which requires intelligent and efficient anti-counterfeiting and tracing capabilities. By providing complete and smooth information flow and tamperproof signature authentication mechanism, blockchain technology can realize accurate tracing and full trust of decentralized or multi centralized, and is naturally applicable to supply chain management.
 
        With the help of blockchain technology, trust sharing among brands, channel providers, retailers, consumers, regulatory authorities and third-party testing institutions is realized, and the overall benefits of brand, efficiency, experience, supervision and supply chain are comprehensively improved. Integrate the information of commodity raw material process, production process, circulation process and marketing process and write it into the blockchain, so as to realize the whole process authentic product tracing from one object to one code. Each piece of information has its own unique blockchain ID "ID card", and each piece of information is attached with the digital signature and writing time stamp of each subject for consumers to query and verify. The blockchain's data signature and encryption technology enables the whole link information to achieve tamper proof, standard unification and efficient exchange.
 
        Establish alliance chains among suppliers, purchasers, banks and other trade financing participants, and record the qualifications of trade subjects, multi frequency transaction information, commodity circulation information, etc. through the blockchain, so that the trade parties and banks can share authentic and reliable information in an open, transparent and safe manner. For large enterprises in the supply chain, banks can enrich the financing risk control model, reduce the workload of offline manual collection and confirmation of information authenticity, and carry out financing services under movable property evaluation. For small and medium-sized enterprises in the upstream and downstream of the supply chain with financing difficulties, credit endorsement can be obtained based on the subject qualification certification provided by the blockchain and the multi frequency transaction information certification with large enterprises, so as to alleviate the financing difficulties.
 
        The core of finance is the establishment and transmission of credit. The blockchain is naturally applicable to a variety of financial scenarios because of its characteristics of non tamperability, security and transparency, decentralization or multi centralization. Most blockchain alliances at home and abroad focus on the financial field. For example, the blockchain alliance R3 composed of 42 international banks is committed to using blockchain technology to build a flat global integrated clearing system on the basis of solving mutual trust, so as to improve efficiency and reduce costs. In addition, according to McKinsey's calculation, blockchain technology can reduce the cost of cross-border transactions from $26 to $15 per transaction. Goldman Sachs also pointed out in a report that blockchain technology will save the capital market $6 billion annually.
 
        The process of transaction clearing and settlement is also a process of separate bookkeeping by both parties. In the traditional transaction mode, the bookkeeping process is conducted by both parties separately, which not only requires a lot of manpower and material resources, but also is prone to inconsistent reconciliation, affecting the settlement efficiency. Through the blockchain system, two or more parties to the transaction can share a set of reliable and mutually recognized account books. All transaction clearing and settlement records can be checked on the chain, which is safe, transparent, non tamperable and traceable, greatly improving the accuracy and efficiency of reconciliation. By carrying smart contracts, automatic transaction clearing and settlement can also be realized, greatly reducing the cost and error rate of reconciliation personnel, especially in cross-border payment scenarios.
 
        The core of the work of government affairs and public services lies in the formulation of industrial standards and effective supervision and management. The traditional management method is to conduct supervision through legislation and spot checks, which can not achieve real-time monitoring. When arbitration is involved, it often requires a long process of evidence collection. By building an alliance chain including government regulators and third-party public service institutions, we can explore innovative management mechanisms, realize real-time government supervision, and greatly improve the efficiency of arbitration by virtue of the non tamperability and traceability of the blockchain. The increasing popularity of electronic contracts and electronic invoices has brought many conveniences to our daily life and business activities. At the same time, we also face many new problems such as contract fraud, invoice fraud and repeated reimbursement, which require the regulatory departments and enterprises to jointly explore effective solutions.
 
        At the same time of issuing electronic contracts and electronic invoices, the filing with the regulatory authorities shall be completed through the alliance chain. In case of fraud and repeated reimbursement, the filing of electronic contracts Blockchain ID "ID card" of electronic invoice ", it can quickly determine the facts of counterfeiting, determine the subject of counterfeiting, and realize real-time supervision. The blockchain technology is applied to support the sunshine, transparency and traceability of public welfare projects. The love materials are directly distributed to the public welfare projects through an efficient logistics system, and are distributed to the recipients by the executive personnel of the public welfare institutions. The donors can query the logistics status of the donated materials through the client in real time, and visually see the distribution of the materials to the recipients The whole process of.
 
        All process information and participant information from the purchase of love materials are protected from tampering by blockchain technology, ensuring the transparency and traceability of public welfare, and greatly increasing the authority and credibility of the public welfare platform. In addition to supply chain, finance, government affairs and public services, blockchain can also be applied in many other fields. Due to space constraints, we are not able to list them one by one. Just two examples:. Make use of the blockchain consensus mechanism, tamper proof mechanism and traceability mechanism to provide effective evidence support for insurance compensation and recovery. Take the automobile insurance claim as an example, it usually includes vehicle owners, 4S stores or maintenance plants, insurance companies, traffic management departments and other entities, and claims fraud such as insurance fraud often occurs.
 
        Relying on the blockchain technology and the Internet of vehicles technology, the corresponding sensor recording equipment is installed on the vehicle to ensure the authenticity, accuracy and non tamperability of the information. In case of an accident, the vehicle accident data is submitted to the "accident certification platform" system applying the blockchain technology in real-time or quasi real-time. The traffic police judgment data, sensor recorder data, maintenance plant data, etc. are synchronized in real-time to fundamentally solve the problem of vehicle insurance claim fraud, At the same time, improve the efficiency and accuracy of insurance claim cases. Blockchain can solve the security problem of big data and ensure the privacy of data. The traceability feature of the blockchain allows data to be stored on the blockchain from every step of data collection, transaction, circulation, and calculation and analysis, which enables the quality of data to obtain an unprecedented strong trust endorsement, and also ensures the correctness of data analysis results and the effect of data mining. It can further standardize the use of data, refine the scope of authorization, trace the use of data, and comprehensively ensure the safety and compliance of data use.
 
        The desensitized data transaction circulation is conducive to breaking through the information island, establishing a horizontal data circulation mechanism, and gradually promoting the formation of new application scenarios such as data transaction and data asset protection based on globalization. The goal of JD blockchain is to provide enterprise level blockchain technology and services, combine its own experience in big data and distributed systems, solve the problems of transaction concurrency performance, data storage performance, scenario universality, functional integrity and ease of use of the blockchain in enterprise level scenarios, realize the landing of the blockchain in JD's own e-commerce and supply chain business, and promote the development of JD blockchain technology and ecology. Blockchain protocol: as the top-level architecture design, the JD blockchain protocol defines the data format standards of the blockchain, including the data standards of account book status, history proof, account book operation set and contract instruction set.
 
        Component model: "component model" is the framework model of blockchain logic components and the implementation framework of JD blockchain protocol. It includes four components: consensus network, ledger, persistence engine and contract engine. Service platform: "service platform" is a concrete implementation of the upper layer blockchain protocol and component model, which is composed of gateway, service, node network, SDK and a set of toolsets. The goal of JD blockchain is to provide enterprise level blockchain technology and services, build a blockchain infrastructure network with high performance, good scalability, wide scene versatility, security compliance, friendly interface and easy deployment and management, and create an open and win-win blockchain technology and service ecosystem.
 
        Business oriented is the first design principle of JD blockchain. Enterprise scenarios are characterized by very diverse requirements and high performance requirements. JD blockchain is positioned as an enterprise level blockchain platform and needs to be applicable to a wide range of enterprise scenarios. In terms of design, the protocol, data structure and functional characteristics of JD blockchain are designed from the core use cases that define enterprise scenarios. Since the blockchain application scenario is a cross subject scenario with multi-party participation and cooperation, JD blockchain is opened from the top level
 
        
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