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[scientists face to face] in the stage of "trusted Internet", blockchain technology has become an important means of social governance in China

Time : 05/09/2021 Author : 2pdzl5 Click : + -
        "Blockchain" is a new concept born in the field of Computer Science in the past two years. Speaking of it, the public may think of "bitcoin" for the first time. However, more and more development trends show that blockchain technology has broad application prospects in the development of all social fields and industries. So, what kind of technology is blockchain? What is the relationship between blockchain and big data and artificial intelligence? What inspiration will blockchain bring to future social governance? Recently, the Yangcheng Evening News all media program "face to face with scientists" specially invited two experts in the field of Computer Science & mdash& mdash; Zhao gansen and Jin Tong explained the blockchain technology and its application prospects in social governance and the integrated development of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area in simple terms.
 
        Ou Jianyan: in the past two years, we have often heard the concept of "blockchain". Ordinary people may not understand it. Can the two experts explain to us what kind of technology blockchain is?. Zhao gansen: the biggest impression of blockchain related technologies in the society is still "bitcoin". It feels that those who engage in blockchain are all engaged in virtual currency and digital currency. In fact, bitcoin is only one of the typical applications of blockchain technology. To understand what a blockchain is, we must first understand why we need it. In the process of world development, we are gradually entering a completely digital world. It is likely that one day, people will not have face-to-face communication.
 
        When we have face-to-face communication with others to generate transactions, there will be a process of paying money and delivering goods. But on the Internet, we can't pay money and deliver goods. So, in the completely digital space, how to build trust between people and how to constrain both sides? The whole technology system of blockchain can support this process. In short, blockchain technology records all behaviors on the computer, and everyone in the world has a data backup. In the process of recording data, we can ensure that as long as we write in the front and then write in the back, all the changes will be the latest account books. Everyone has an account book in hand, which is equivalent to everyone having a photocopier. Through this process, we can achieve complete and reliable records of the real world, So as to support us to build an environment that can constrain everyone's behavior in the digital space and support the interaction between social individuals.
 
        Jin Tong: blockchain is actually an underlying technology. The development of blockchain technology marks that the Internet has entered a new stage. In the decades of Internet development, it has gone through several stages. The first stage is the stage of "playing the role of connectivity". Before the Internet, physical distance caused difficulties and delays in communication. Later, e-mail, FTP and other technologies were slowly developed on the Internet, and even primitive instant messaging began to appear. At this time, experience was not emphasized, and what was important was the process of "from scratch". The second stage is the "functional role" stage. That is, since then, we have started to have informational websites, search engines, e-commerce, instant messaging and social networks.
 
        However, there is a potential problem to be solved, that is, the problem of "trust". Because the trust at this time must be established in the hands of those who control the release of information or individuals. When they say that the information is authentic, outsiders can only choose to trust him, but there is no mechanism to ensure that it is authentic. The third stage, that is, now, we begin to call for the emergence of a "trusted Internet". As a mechanism not controlled by any single institution, blockchain has become one of the answers to the "trusted Internet". Why is blockchain just one of the answers? Because blockchain is one of the solutions, it does not mean that there is only one architecture to meet the development of "trusted Internet" in the future.
 
        The emergence of blockchain marks that we have entered a new stage of "trusted Internet". Ou Jianyan: both experts have worked in well-known big data companies abroad. Please talk about the current level of big data and blockchain technology application in European and American countries? What is its application scenario? What are the advantages of the technology and application of European and American countries over that of China?. Zhao gansen: both in the big data field and the blockchain field, European and American countries are very different from domestic countries in terms of content. The process of industrial innovation in European and American countries will pay special attention to the innovation of industrial application. For example, in the field of big data, a large amount of domestic costs are often invested in content production and infrastructure construction.
 
        In Guangzhou, we have one of the fastest computers in the world, and then we have built a large number of urban perception networks, which will generate a large amount of data. However, in fact, we have not made full use of these important data. Although the data samples obtained by European and American countries are far less than ours, they can fully mine and squeeze these data to reflect their value. For example, I went to the United States last year to learn how several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) use government data to monitor the government's financial situation. One of them, through mining and analyzing the data published by the government on the Internet, found that the government subsidy applied by one person did not match his own occupation.
 
        After deep excavation, they found that this person's address was in the city, but they applied for agricultural subsidies from the Ministry of agriculture, and then they found out that there was something fishy in it. This is the strength of the data mining capabilities of European and American countries. At present, we rarely go so far. In fact, they may have taken a small step more than us, but this small step can reflect special value, which can support the development of the industry and play a key role. Zhao gansen: we pay too much attention to whether there are good technologies or whether the basic construction is particularly good. But the most important thing is to be result oriented and innovative applications are valuable.
 
        We often say that we have built a system with what technology and how many high-level talents, but we seldom emphasize what beautiful things the system has done. Jin Tong: I have worked in both China and the United States. From the technical point of view, some technological development ideas and methods in European and American countries are indeed excellent. Now that the Internet is developed, it is very easy to understand these advanced technologies and ideas. In China, everyone's learning ability is also very strong now, and new technologies will "shine in the eyes". This is a good time for scientific research. I have observed that, on the one hand, European and American countries pay more attention to the input-output ratio in both industry and scientific research, and have higher requirements for efficiency. They will be results oriented. If no results are achieved, the market will be eliminated quickly.
 
        On the other hand, they do not pay so much attention to "fashion". For example, when it comes to 3G technology, we will immediately think of 4G, 5g and 6G, and they may want to develop the current generation of technology and solve problems through existing technologies. Therefore, it is not easy for them to call for a new generation of industries. Even if they do, they are more cautious. They pay more attention to the effect of actual output, so they will be more original, but also more "disordered". At home, we often have a macro direction first, and then many enterprises move in this direction. The advantage of this approach is that it can produce a large-scale effect. If everyone fully competes, the best will stand out in the competition.
 
        I think if we can combine the advantages of domestic and European and American countries, we can make a lot of interesting things. With good ideas, good ideas and good technologies, we still need to think about how to apply them to domestic industries. For example, blockchain has a wide range of applications in the market, manufacturing, commerce, government governance and other aspects. In addition, do not regard blockchain as an independent technology. It is only an infrastructure. It should be developed in combination with big data, artificial intelligence, application development and other technologies. Blockchain is a trust mechanism, but the first step of the trust mechanism is to establish a distributed facility and mechanism, which needs policy support.
 
        Ou Jianyan: in the past two years, we have seen that some industries and government departments have begun to actively use blockchain technology to solve some management problems. For example, what are your suggestions on using blockchain technology to improve government governance?. Zhao gansen: I think the government may have several problems in the process of Social Governance: first, whether the data obtained by the government is correct; Second, the circulation and sharing of government data resources and information resources; Third, build a systematic and automated process to let the society operate automatically, instead of requiring manual intervention in everything. The blockchain can help the government solve some problems in these three aspects.
 
        First, on the blockchain system, it can ensure that all the information recorded is recognized by everyone, and this solves the first problem. Secondly, government resource sharing and business collaboration can also be driven by blockchain. For example, the sharing of government data and the interaction between departments can be realized on the blockchain. In addition, for the issue of automatic circulation, smart contracts can be built on the blockchain. When you have something, put it on the blockchain, and as long as we negotiate in advance, and execute a certain action when the conditions are met, automatic execution can be realized. For example, if your ID card is lost, as long as all the materials you provide are true, and then they are published in the newspaper, the system will automatically issue you a new ID card three months later.
 
        In the past, we need someone to follow up, and through the smart contract of the blockchain, it can be automatically executed to realize the automation of the whole process. I personally hope that blockchain can help the government improve efficiency in social governance and government services. Ou Jianyan: Recently, the State Council issued the outline of the development plan of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Greater Bay area. What inspiration can the application of blockchain technology bring to the integrated development of the Greater Bay Area in the future?. Jin Tong: I am engaged in industrial research. We all have such a thinking, that is, there must be a scene in the application of technology, and there must be a customer, and this customer can benefit from the technology. For example, the products that we provide decision support for government agencies and departments are implemented with blockchain technology, so that the uniqueness and authority of the content can be preserved.
 
        Blockchain is not a technology that can exist alone. It must be combined with existing technologies. Therefore, we propose a technical framework of "blockchain +". The combination of blockchain and existing industrial application architecture can enable it to be endowed with "trust" and "authority". Moreover, blockchain is a relatively high-cost technology with large redundancy, so the best application is to save the data of key nodes on the blockchain. We use this method to explore, explore one by one, make it a replicable benchmark, and then promote it. This is also the purpose and methodology of our Guangdong Hong Kong Macao Bay blockchain application promotion center.
 
        Jin Tong: Yes, although there are differences among Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, the advantage is that there is a large amount of exchangeable data. As long as the data can form an exchangeable mechanism, it is a consensus mechanism on the blockchain. In the process of data circulation, the data is also "endorsed". This is a very favorable situation. In addition, it is a very farsighted and scientific method to promote this integration from the data and technology level, so that we can see how the actual circulation is from the common essential level, and then promote the integration of other aspects layer by layer. I am optimistic about this. Zhao gansen: in the actual operation process, the application threshold of blockchain is not high. The highest application threshold is "thinking", that is, how to understand blockchain and how to use blockchain technology.
 
        Like the concept of "blockchain +" mentioned by Mr. Jin, in fact, it is to let us not only have data thinking when doing big data, but also have blockchain thinking when doing other work. We can support some things we need to do through blockchain thinking. Technical problems are not big problems. Qu Jianyan: Recently, Guangdong computer society established a blockchain special committee. Professor Zhao, you are the chairman. Could you talk about the functions of the blockchain special committee?. Zhao gansen: the blockchain special committee is a purely academic organization. We integrate most of the experts in blockchain research and technology development in Guangdong Province, including university teachers, researchers of scientific research institutes and enterprise technical backbones. Of course, we also encourage backbones in technology application and business promotion to join us.
 
        We hope to realize three key functions through the blockchain special committee: first, let everyone understand what is a blockchain correctly, and do not let a good technology lose opportunities because of insufficient social understanding. Therefore, our main work at this stage is to popularize science and promote blockchain technology and application. Second, we hope to encourage more scientific research and technological application innovation in the field of blockchain technology and application, and constantly make breakthroughs and improve, so that our technical level in this field can compete at the international level. Third, we hope to do a good job in the connection between technical personnel and society. We do not aim to make profits. When there is a demand for talents at the social application level, we can find talents who can solve problems from the committee members.
 
        Ou Jianyan: today, we are very grateful to the two guests for bringing us so much valuable knowledge and views on blockchain technology and applications. Thank you again. For more wonderful programs, please continue to pay attention to the full media report of "face to face with scientists" in Yangcheng Evening News. See you in the next issue. In the past two years, we have often heard the concept of "blockchain", which ordinary people may not understand. Can the two experts explain to us what kind of technology blockchain is?. At present, the biggest impression of blockchain related technologies in society is still "bitcoin", and it feels that those who engage in blockchain are all engaged in virtual currency and digital currency. In fact, bitcoin is only one of the typical applications of blockchain technology. To understand what a blockchain is, we must first understand why we need it.
 
        In the process of world development, we are gradually entering a completely digital world. It is likely that one day, people will not have face-to-face communication. When we have face-to-face communication with others to generate transactions, there will be a process of paying money and delivering goods. But on the Internet, we can't pay money and deliver goods. So, in the completely digital space, how to build trust between people and how to constrain both sides? The whole technology system of blockchain can support this process. In short, blockchain technology records all behaviors on the computer, and everyone in the world has a data backup. In the process of recording data, we can ensure that as long as we write in the front and then write in the back, all the changes will be the latest account books. Everyone has an account book in hand, which is equivalent to everyone having a photocopier. Through this process, we can achieve complete and reliable records of the real world, So as to support us to build an environment that can constrain everyone's behavior in the digital space and support the interaction between social individuals.
 
        Blockchain is actually an underlying technology. The development of blockchain technology marks that the Internet has entered a new stage. In the decades of Internet development, it has gone through several stages. The first stage is the stage of "playing the role of connectivity". Before the Internet, physical distance caused communication difficulties and delays. Later, e-mail was slowly developed on the Internet
 
        
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