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What is a blockchain,What is the final form of Ethereum in the next five stages

Time : 06/12/2021 Author : 42qm30 Click : + -
        The merge, that is, the transformation of Ethereum to the proof of interest network, is planned to be completed in the main network by the end of September this year. This upgrade aims to systematically improve the accessibility of the blockchain and transition Ethereum from the bitcoin type work proof consensus mechanism to the rights and interests proof system. Ethereum is a key step in expanding the blockchain from implementing sharding to the rollup centric route for hundreds of millions of users. As pointed out in our previous article exploration of modular blockchain, the data availability and fragmentation in the modular architecture can allow the blockchain to expand throughput without sacrificing decentralization.
 
        At the same time, the paper discusses the data availability, rollup and failure / validity proof in depth, which lays a foundation for further understanding the background and objectives of the merger. This article will deeply analyze the technical details of the merger, the new roadmap of Ethereum, and the significance of this change to users and developers. Initially, the plan of Ethereum 2.0 (now the term has been abandoned) was to achieve scalability by dividing the main network into 64 partitions, each of which has an independent miner / verifier. Then, the user will send the transaction to a specific segment according to the congestion, utilization and throughput.
 
        Due to the continuous development of rollup and the complexity of execution sharding, the original scalability roadmap centered on execution sharding is no longer applicable, so people begin to use data sharding. In the view of the Ethereum team, rollup will become a key element of the expansion of Ethereum. They plan to make the upgraded Ethereum a powerful settlement and data availability layer, and let rollup gain security from it. Different from the general view, the purpose of the merger is not to reduce transaction costs, but to transform Ethereum into an infrastructure layer for rollup, and the construction of beacon chain is the first key step to achieve this goal.
 
        Ethereum will change from the previous "proof of work" system to the "proof of interest" system. In this system, the pledger must provide collateral to produce the block, so as to prevent any dishonest behavior. After the consensus system is transferred to the proof of interest, the verification committee will be introduced as a primitive, thus strengthening the network consensus and paving the way for the formation of an efficient data availability layer within the protocol. The beacon chain is responsible for coordinating the pledgers, and does not process or execute transactions as Ethereum does today. More specifically, the merger is actually the merger of the old executive layer of Ethereum and the new consensus engine provided by the beacon chain, which converts the existing algorithm of miners under the work certification system into a coordination network of verifiers under the equity certification system.
 
        At the same time, this change also laid a foundation for segmentation: in the past, under the work certification system, miners' work was not recorded, so they could stop working and leave the network at will; Under the proof of rights and interests system, the beacon chain will register all approved block producers, and can coordinate and parallelize the voting of verifiers. The formation of the verifier committee is an important innovation of the beacon chain. They are randomly assigned by the beacon chain and are responsible for voting on blocks and forming consensus. The comprehensive voting of the committee is called witness message, which facilitates people to easily verify the status of the beacon chain by checking the voting of the Committee. Compared with the verification conducted by a single verifier, this approach minimizes the block size and data growth.
 
        At the same time, the witness message also strengthens the consensus, because in this mode, the creation of bifurcation will require the participation of a large number of verifiers. In addition, verifiers will be replaced regularly to prevent some unscrupulous verifiers from colluding to launch attacks. After the merger, Ethereum will separate the proposer builder from the consensus layer. Vitalik believes that all blockchains should eventually be able to conduct centralized block production and decentralized block verification. Since the data of the partitioned Ethereum block is very dense, the block production must be centralized due to the high requirements for data availability. At the same time, we must also set up a decentralized verifier set to verify the block and perform data availability sampling.
 
        The builder role builds the Ethereum execution payload block with user transactions and submits it to the proposer (a randomly selected subset of the verifier set) along with the bidding for acceptance. Once the proponents accept the payload, they will sign on the block and disseminate it through the network. Since the payload sent to the proposer is stripped of the transaction content, this structure eliminates the possibility of the verifier catching up. In an effective market, the introduction of block space market also encourages builders to participate in MeV bidding, so that decentralized verifiers can obtain most of the MeV rewards. Compared with simulated Ethereum, this setting can effectively prevent miners from destroying the stability of consensus and reduce the generation of harmful mevs.
 
        Although the separation of proponents and builders was originally designed to offset the harmful externalities and centralization of MeV, the Ethereum core team realized that it could also serve data fragmentation. Danksharding is named after the core contributor dankradfeist. Its main innovation is a combined fee market, which replaces the original fixed number of segments with different blocks and proponents. All transactions and data within a specific time will be selected by the proponents. Behind the proponent is actually a randomly generated verifier committee responsible for sampling the availability of blockchain data.
 
        In this way, the data availability of the light client can be maintained in a decentralized manner, but it is restricted by the large amount of data in the merged block, which cannot be realized in single point verification. Since the consensus node is also performing data availability sampling, the model can unify the settlement layer, the consensus layer and the data availability layer. The unified settlement and data availability layer has opened a new door for rollup using validity proof: zkrollup can now make synchronous calls with the execution layer on Ethereum. This enhances new L2 primitives, such as distributed mobility and fractal extension, and lays the foundation for building the next generation of innovative DAPP on zkrollup.
 
        Although danksharding is beneficial to the future development of Ethereum, it will not play its full role immediately after the merger. Proto danksharding (eip-4844) is the original version of danksharding, which is planned to be released before the full implementation of danksharding. This proposal creates a primitive called blob carrying transaction. As the name implies, this type of transaction refers to a transaction that carries a data payload called blob. Blobs will be the data standard of Ethereum after fragmentation: they are bundled with kzg polynomial commitments, and because they are decoupled from EVM, blobs are also a more efficient format than call data.
 
        At present, rollup is still using call data to transfer transaction data back to Ethereum, resulting in high gas costs. In the future of fragmentation, rollup will use blob to save gas costs related to EVM execution for users. At the same time, proto danksharding's goal is to provide developers with this cutting-edge data format, and to temporarily reduce the data cost of rollup by introducing a separate format and charging market for their data to be fragmented. Although proto danksharding itself does not really realize sharding, it provides a standard for the data format after sharding, which is also the first step to build an efficient native data availability layer.
 
        At the same time, we also need to consider the state of Ethereum and its storage. Since verifiers must complete their tasks on consumer hardware products, the increasing state may affect decentralization. Proto dankshardingblob was separated from EVM execution layer and was deleted after about one month. In addition, eip-4444 allows clients to stop providing historical data at the point-to-point layer after about one year. In any case, we must perform some type of mandatory historical invalidation at the protocol layer, because about 40tb of historical BLOB data will be added every year after the fragmentation.
 
        Blockchain status needs to be stored in RAM or SSD. However, historical storage, that is, the data that Ethereum has reached consensus on, can be stored on cheap HDDs. Since the history storage runs on the honest minority (1-of-N) trust model, we do not need to store the history data on the node performing the real-time consensus at all. The danksharding specification can ensure that verifiers can store and guarantee the data availability that they have agreed on within a few months. After that, these deleted historical data will be stored by a third party, such as a specific application protocol, BitTorrent, portal network, block explorer, personal enthusiast or index protocol.
 
        Stateless Ethereum is another target on the roadmap. The block producer will use the witness information witness, which is a proof composed of relevant data required to execute transactions in the block. Then, the client can use this proof to verify the state root generated by executing the block. They only need to execute a part of the affected state, not all the States. In this design, the scale and availability of the proof are two core problems: the first problem can be solved by changing the state data structure of Ethereum from protocol level specification.
 
        According to vitalik, in the process of expanding Ethereum, we need to rely on centralized block producers with professional hardware while maintaining decentralized verification. Danksharding inherits the security of Ethereum and puts forward higher requirements for rollup. After closely integrating data availability with consensus and settlement layer, we can upgrade the underlying infrastructure, so that rollup can take advantage of the native data availability solution and eliminate the security assumptions of validity and voluntariness. This has laid a foundation for the construction of enshrinedrollup, thus eliminating the risks in governance and smart contracts in the future.
 
        At the same time, enshrinedrollup, which uses snarks to make synchronous calls within the protocol, has also become a key design for future blockchain expansion. The advantage of rollup in the agreement is that it will eliminate the gas cost of the smart contract rollup which is fixed daily and measured by the number of blocks; Moreover, since the calculation is decoupled from the consensus, the verifier no longer needs to re execute the transaction to verify the block; In addition, the state difference can be guaranteed by the validity certificate, and the stateless client no longer needs to download the witness certificate. With these advantages, the settlement delay will be improved, the synchronization and verifier bandwidth will be improved, and the security of the cross link bridge will be more guaranteed.
 
        The Ethereum foundation is currently working to implement this design into the roadmap of Ethereum, and plans to upgrade EVM to a snark compatible encapsulated rollup. In the previous article, we discussed the benefits of the architecture under the modular chain and the solutions for data availability, settlement and execution being developed by the third-party protocol. The main goal of the Ethereum roadmap is to minimize trust assumptions and provide scalability within the protocol through native solutions. The basic layer of Ethereum carries the entire decentralized application ecosystem, which is expected to fundamentally change the way we think about identity, storage, search, reputation and privacy in the digital age.
 
        While upgrading Ethereum to the basic layer, we also optimized this application layer, so that users and developers can expand more use cases in a secure and powerful global infrastructure. For Ethereum, its vision is to create a digital future for the whole world. At the same time, it will continue to adhere to the principle of trusted neutrality, and continue to develop the network effect, decentralization and security of Ethereum, so as to consolidate its position in the future decentralized network. Thus, this merger is the first step taken by Ethereum to realize this vision.
 
        
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