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What is the relationship between blockchain, artificial intelligence and Internet of things?

Time : 07/06/2022 Author : 5dkxof Click : + -
        Recently, with the ups and downs of bitcoin, the blockchain technology has become more popular than the artificial intelligence in the alphago stage in the past few months. Nowadays, few people mention the Internet of things technology, which was very popular in the past two years. It seems that the technology is drifting faster and faster, and people's enthusiasm is cooling faster and faster. It seems that the future application scenarios of these emerging technologies are revolutionary and exciting. Are these technologies only developed independently? What is the internal relationship between them?. Homo sapiens, as an independent intelligent individual, has the ability to make and use tools, and the ability to learn and think has become the basis for continuous evolution and development.
        The emergence of language and writing actually meets the communication needs between people. As an information bearing format of group consensus, language and characters display information in a standardized format, thus supporting the information exchange between people, and also becoming the carrier of information recording and knowledge precipitation. The formation of group contract makes it possible for human groups to work and live under unified goals and rules, and makes it possible for human beings to achieve larger group achievements. From morality, religion and law to regulations, systems and agreements, they are all manifestations of human social group contracts. It is precisely because of the common influence, mutual promotion and iteration of the three elements of Homo sapiens, language and group contract that human society has evolved step by step from the primitive society to the present Internet and intelligent era.
        Therefore, the emergence and interconnection of these three elements are the premise of the formation of human society. Then let's take a look at the relationship between artificial intelligence, Internet of things and blockchain, and Homo sapiens, languages and group contracts. At present, artificial intelligence is more representative of intelligent individuals. It can intelligently complete single point decision-making and has continuous learning and iteration ability. The Internet of things advocated by the Internet of things is essentially to solve the problem of communication ability of single point individuals. The interconnection of all things enables all individuals to connect with each other, and forms a cooperative underlying foundation between individuals and groups. The essence of blockchain is actually a group contract automatically formed between machines.
        The innovation in the blockchain mode is from centralization to decentralization. In essence, there is no need for a centralized and trusted single point to make decisions and issue instructions. A common contract can be formed only through a plurality of untrusted and equal single points, and this contract is trusted and cannot be tampered with by the participants. Speaking of this, we will find an interesting thing. The role and role of artificial intelligence, Internet of things and blockchain in the field of technology are very similar to that of Homo sapiens, language and group contracts in human society. Of course, these emerging technologies are still at a relatively early stage, and each has many difficulties and obstacles.
        Well, let's take a look at the problems they have encountered and the potential solutions. Historical experience is derived from the summary, induction and analysis of historical data, and then the continuous iterative cycle, thus forming some theorems, common sense, rules and so on. Current information is the objective information obtained by human for the specific problems that need to be solved. It is precisely based on our own experience and combined with the actual situation that human beings make one decision after another. The same is true of artificial intelligence. At present, the algorithm research in the field of machine learning and deep learning is in full swing, but it is generally believed that the algorithms of the giants will be open in the end.
        The algorithm is not a secret. The key is to have data and how to use the algorithm. Artificial intelligence needs two parts of data, one is historical data, which is used to form machine experience, and the other is real-time data, which is collected to make real-time decisions. Because machine experience needs to be derived from a large amount of historical data, data collection is ubiquitous and the growth of data will be geometric. With the current centralized storage and centralized communication mode, it will be impossible to support such a large volume through a huge single point in the future. The storage and communication capacity are bottlenecks and the efficiency will be very low.
        When intelligent individuals make decisions, they need to obtain as much real-time relevant data as possible for reference. If there is not enough real-time data or the data is not real-time enough, this artificial intelligence can only be limited intelligence. How to solve it? Real time data is collected widely in all places and can be exchanged with each other at the fastest speed. You must see that this is exactly the problem that the Internet of things needs to solve. No matter how smart a person is, it does not necessarily mean that he has the ability to coordinate a group of people to form a correct consensus and a reasonable group goal to achieve a larger group task. Most of the visions of the future in science fiction films such as the matrix are that there is a super intelligent matrix in the whole world. This matrix is the center of super intelligence, and all decisions are made by it.
        In fact, this single point super intelligence form will have a huge efficiency bottleneck, which is also impossible to achieve. Therefore, science fiction movies often arrange a surreal super energy source for the matrix, which is more efficient than nuclear energy. For example, super energy meteorites in outer space destroy the energy source and destroy the matrix. All these are unreasonable manifestations of the matrix model. The same is true of artificial intelligence, which will eventually move from individual intelligence to group intelligence. The swarm intelligence decision of distributed nodes is the foundation of swarm intelligence. Only when intelligent group decision-making can be formed can intelligent individuals enjoy the crystallization of group experience, so as to continuously carry out benign iteration of individuals and groups.
        The blockchain will become the infrastructure for group intelligent decision-making. Mechanisms such as smart contracts and machine voting will drive the collaboration between decentralized intelligent nodes and become the carrier for the formation and recording of machine experience. It's not difficult to make everything have network access and communication capability without talking about cost and technology. The difficulty lies in how to make such a large number of nodes communicate efficiently and how to control these nodes. This is not a problem that can be solved by increasing bandwidth and upgrading to IPv6. In fact, the Internet we currently use is not really an "interconnected" network structure in terms of infrastructure.
        Every part of the Internet is a tree, and all devices are leaves on the tree, connected to the trunk through multiple branches. And the whole Internet is composed of many such trees, more like a forest. Therefore, if a leaf wants to talk with another leaf, it may need to be transmitted to its trunk through multi-level branches, and then transmitted from the root to another trunk, and then to another leaf through multi-level branches. This process is actually very inefficient and resource consumption is very large. In the military field, since it is assumed that all communication base stations and even satellites will be destroyed in wartime, more emphasis will be placed on point-to-point communication and ad hoc networks.
        For example, how can a sensor network composed of numerous micro sensor devices spread across the battlefield automatically form an efficient self-organizing network under the condition of limited energy, so as to have macro information transmission and organizational control capabilities. The deep application of the Internet of things is also troubled by the centralized mode at present. The centralized information exchange and control has become the bottleneck for the Internet of things to truly play its role. The blockchain is an effective tool to promote decentralization. Only by decentralizing and allowing massive distributed nodes to exchange information more flexibly can the cost of comprehensive control be greatly reduced and bottlenecks in any link be avoided. In addition, the maturity of artificial intelligence technology will greatly accelerate the technological evolution under the decentralized scenario.
        A typical example is that it is difficult to do experiments in many fields of sociology and economics. Unlike in the fields of physics and mathematics, as long as the model is specified, it is convenient to perform calculations and experiments. However, the models of many disciplines are dynamic models in the individual range, and it is difficult to conduct macro dimension experiments composed of massive individual models. Artificial intelligence can solve such problems to a large extent. Therefore, we can expect great progress in sociology and economics in the near future. The decentralization of the blockchain requires the participation of many distributed nodes with communication capabilities and resources. Obviously, this infrastructure should be provided by the Internet of things.
        At present, the transaction speed of bitcoin is widely criticized, so Ethereum and other solutions appear. However, this is not only a unique problem of the blockchain under the virtual currency scenario. In fact, the decision-making speed of the blockchain determines the breadth and depth of its final applicable scenarios. Only a blockchain that can make group decisions quickly can effectively cooperate with intelligent individuals for intelligent cooperation. On the one hand, it needs the continuous evolution and improvement of the technology of the blockchain itself, and on the other hand, it also needs the Internet of things to provide a more efficient information exchange mechanism. Bitcoin adopts a more ingenious way to keep accounts. After the historical transaction accounts are merged into the latest accounts, they will be marked as invalid.
        In this way, only the latest accounts can be judged when conducting transactions, instead of constantly looking up the history on the chain. However, even if a large amount of information is stored outside the chain through other means, and only core information is recorded in the chain, the chain will be longer and longer after all. Moreover, how to save, manage and exchange the subject data stored outside the chain is a new problem. As long as the blockchain is regarded as a distributed and trusted database, it is necessary to solve the new problems brought by the growth of data volume. All these seem to need the support and solution of the massive nodes with local resources under the Internet of things system. All kinds of radars, cameras, sensors and communication equipment equipped on vehicles should belong to the category of Internet of things, which is the so-called "Internet of vehicles".
        On Tesla electric vehicles, no matter whether the "automatic driving package" is enabled or not, on-board sensors will be equipped by default, which is actually to collect "historical data". After collecting enough historical data, Tesla can find laws in a centralized and unified manner through deep learning and other methods to form group experience. Then, these experiences are distributed to each vehicle. In the process of automatic driving, the vehicle continuously collects real-time road condition data through on-board sensors, and makes real-time decisions in the way of artificial intelligence in combination with group experience, and continuously performs driving control such as acceleration, deceleration and avoidance. In this process, new historical data will be generated, and the process will be repeated and upgraded.
        It is worth noting that Tesla's model is still a centralized model. Therefore, even if the total number of existing Tesla cars is not large, it is impossible to report all the original data collected on the cars to the center. In the future, there will not be a huge center that can collect all the data of driverless vehicles in the world. Therefore, it may also be necessary for each individual seeking group experience to contribute their own resources to save and analyze data in order to obtain more group experience. In addition, the intellectualization of single point traffic equipment can not solve the big problem of intelligent transportation as a whole. How to achieve intelligent traffic scheduling when all vehicles can drive automatically? This requires the participation of the blockchain, so that group decisions can be made automatically between vehicles.
        For example, if a section of the road is slippery due to snow, the nearby vehicles can quickly conduct self-organized negotiation through the blockchain, and make a group decision of a temporary speed limit of 40 yards, and all passing vehicles will consciously abide by it. It is impossible to have a huge traffic control center in the future, which can accurately grasp the real-time information of all vehicles, make all micro decisions in a centralized manner, and give instructions in a timely manner. Only through decentralized group decision-making can real intelligent transportation be formed. Because bitcoin is mixed with many economic factors, there will be more interference items. Let's take the recent popular IPFs and filecoin as examples.
        In August 2017, filecoin broke the global ICO record and raised more than $250 million. Interplanetary file system (IPFs) is a network transmission protocol designed to create persistent and distributed storage and shared files. IPFs is a point-to-point hypermedia protocol, which can make the network faster, safer and more open. It is a global, point-to-point distributed version of the file system, trying to connect all computing devices with the same file system. Generally speaking, IPFs is a global distributed data storage system and data distribution system, and filecoin, a virtual currency, is the incentive layer above IPFs.
        As long as you have storage and network resources, your device can join the IPFs network. By providing data storage and data exchange services for "strangers", you can get the corresponding filecoin reward based on the value of the resources you contribute. Friends who have some knowledge may know that the star domain CDN and chain chain that Xunlei has recently been engaged in are very similar to IPFs / filecoin. If we abstract the model of IPFs, we can see that it is actually a group of unfamiliar machines, which cooperatively complete a group task with a pre-defined consensus of input and output. At the same time, the work of the machine itself can be remunerated, and in this process, there is no need for people to participate.
        The owner of the machine, that is, the holder of the resources, is responsible for providing and undertaking the storage, network, hardware, power and other logistics support resources required by the machine in the working process. If we look at it from the perspective of "society", this model reminds me of the slave owners in the south of the United States before the civil war. Driven by the slave owners, the black slaves planted and harvested cotton. The cotton trading market was actually the consensus of input and output rules. The slave owners needed to buy slaves and also needed to provide the materials needed by the slaves for production and life. After the driverless technology is mature, it can now be expected that the owner of the car can let his car join some kind of alliance (input-output contract, such as Uber) and let the car "earn extra money" for himself. This is also a similar example.
        On the whole, I think this shows the impact of emerging technologies on productivity, production relations and means of production. It will be a mixed form of human society and primary machine society. However, the difficulties and bottlenecks they encounter in their respective fields can be solved by the other two technologies to a large extent, so as to form a benign iteration of cross support and cyclic evolution. The so-called machine society is just like the human society. Machines have intelligence and can communicate independently, and automatically form the laws and rules of the machine society. Without the help of human external forces, they can iterate and evolve on their own. A potential technological breakthrough began to emerge. Early conceptual stories and media attention aroused great public interest.
        There are often no available products and their commercial viability has not been proven. The excessive attention of the public in the early stage deduces a series of success stories & mdash& mdash; Of course, there are also many examples of failure. For the failure, some companies have taken remedial measures, but most of them are indifferent. The experiment and deployment failed, and public interest weakened. Technology producers are out of the game or fail. The surviving suppliers can continue to obtain investment only by improving their products to satisfy the early adopters. Many enterprises have obviously benefited from this technology, and these examples are beginning to be widely known. Technology suppliers began to launch the second and third generation products.
        More enterprises are trying to invest, and conservative enterprises are still cautious. Mainstream applications began to develop rapidly. review
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