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IC: blockchain breaker

Time : 13/03/2022 Author : 8p7hba Click : + -
        The blockchain system is well-known in the industry for its "traceability", "transparency" and "integrated maintenance". Various industries and fields actively deploy various blockchain systems by using its characteristics. In the general trend driven by the concept of meta universe, a huge economic system has been formed through the production, protection and trading of digital copyright based on the blockchain technology. A few days ago, at the metacon metauniverse technology conference hosted by 51CTO, Liang Qiang, founder of mixlabs, gave a keynote speech "IC blockchain breaker", focusing on the core technology and ecological advantages of IC, and why IC is expected to become a new generation infrastructure of metauniverse. Our team mainly focuses on the research and incubation of IC ecology. The following will introduce IC from four aspects: basic information, core technology, roadmap and ecological advantages, and how it becomes a new generation infrastructure of the metauniverse.
 
        IC is an Internet computer supported by dfinity foundation. It has the characteristics of high performance, decentralization and unlimited expansion. It is mainly used to carry the decentralized application in the future Web3.0 era, so as to realize the new generation of Internet technology revolution. Therefore, it is sometimes called an Internet computer. In terms of team, IC originated from a project incubated by stringlabs. So far, the team members mainly include top scientists in the current blockchain field and engineers from well-known enterprises such as Google, Amazon and IBM. The team has more than 200 people.
 
        Bitcoin was born in 2009. As the first application of blockchain, it brought blockchain technology to the whole industry. Bitcoin now plays a similar role to digital gold, mainly solving the problem of value storage. From 2014 to 2015, Ethereum was born. It is equivalent to bringing smart contracts to the whole industry, making our assets programmable. Ethereum is mainly a decentralized asset issuance and clearing platform. We also call it the blockchain 2.0 era. Since 2015, there have been many public chains, which basically do some homogenization with Ethereum. Up to last year, IC was launched, which brought new technical experience.
 
        IC is the first new generation infrastructure that combines computing and storage. In the future, it will mainly support large-scale decentralized application cloud platform in the Web3.0 era. The IC is composed of N equivalent subnets. There are two types of subnets, one is the system subnet and the other is the application subnet. The whole network now has almost 20 or 30 subnets, which are based on the global data centers. There are more than 13 nodes in each subnet, and local consensus is achieved within the subnet through ICC protocol (ICC is equivalent to an improved version of BFT protocol, and with threshold signature, a fast consensus can be achieved).
 
        In addition, there is a catchuppackge in the subnet. The entire subnet is packed every 200 blocks. The old state can be deleted after the internal confirmation by the 2F + 1 node. This is equivalent to backing up the entire subnet every 200 blocks. We can use packge to recover data, synchronize data, or reorganize the subnet to deal with some irreversible errors. The governance system of IC is called neuron system. NNs is mainly a series of special canisters deployed in the system subnet, which is responsible for the approval of node joining, generation of IC subnet, ICP protocol upgrading, etc.
 
        The protocol upgrade on the entire IC can be automatically implemented after passing the NNs, so it is necessary to ensure that the entire network is more secure. Ordinary users can pledge ICP to become neurons to participate in the voting of NNs, and pledge for more than six months to obtain the system's reward. ICC is an internal consensus system of IC subnet. As the underlying protocol of dfinity, ICC can support the Byzantine fault-tolerant mechanism of Internet computers. Through threshold signature, the communication complexity can be reduced and the consensus efficiency of the entire network can be greatly improved. Within the whole subnet, blockmaker is equivalent to the proponent of a block. The internal nodes of the subnet provide randomness by running the VRF provided by chainkey, randomly select unpredictable outbound nodes, pack them according to their own priorities, and broadcast all received transactions.
 
        There is also a certification committee. Other nodes in the subnet verify and output the block after receiving it. After the output is sorted into merkletree, it is broadcast, and then the subnet is authenticated by threshold signature. First, accelerate the consensus of subnets. Because the threshold signature provided by chainkey can reduce the communication complexity of the entire subnet sufficiently low, so that the entire subnet can reach a rapid consensus. Second, provide randomness on the chain. Chainkey provides a random number function of VRF, through which the whole chain can be naturally random. Third, ensure the verification of cross subnet communication. Each subnet has its own chainkey. The communication between the subnet and the subnet is verified through the chainkey to achieve the traffic between the subnets.
 
        Fourth, cross chain interoperability verification. After the ECDSA version is implemented through chainkey, it can verify the signatures of bitcoin and Ethereum, and then the IC can be used as the extension layer of Ethereum and bitcoin, and the messages on both sides can be verified on the chain. In this way, the interoperability between the IC and bitcoin and the dual chain with Ethereum can be achieved. Decentralized random beacon (DRB) is the source of randomness of IC network. It is responsible for the randomness and security of IC by letting committee members run VRF functions together.
 
        The bottom layer of VRF is mainly tbls algorithm (i.e. BLS algorithm of threshold signature version). The randomness of its output is actually unpredictable. That is to say, before the random number is generated, it cannot be obtained by other people, nor can it be predicted. As far as the whole blockchain is concerned, the blockchain can solve the transparency of the whole network, but it cannot solve the fairness. Only real random numbers on the chain can guarantee fairness. Now, most of other networks generate a pseudo-random number on the chain through some data on and off the chain. IC considered this very early. The random number lighthouse is mainly operated by all clients of the Committee. Through the threshold relay mechanism, the next generation committee is generated and the members of the next generation committee are given weights.
 
        The entire IC has multiple canisters distributed in the subnet. Canisters are somewhat similar to smart contract containers in Ethereum, and can support wasm contracts. The wasm contract currently mainly supports the development of MOTOKO, rust and other programming languages, and supports concurrent and online upgrades. Each canisters has a 4G runtime stack and 4 to 8g persistent memory, which can be used as data storage. Therefore, after the combination of canisters + wasm, the front-end display layer, business logic end and data end of our application can be fully deployed on the blockchain.
 
        Some existing public chains often put consensus or economic models on the group chain, but their data and logic ends are still under the chain, so security cannot be guaranteed. On the IC, you can use react to write the front end of the application, rust to write your business logic end, and your stable memory to store your data end. Moreover, the entire canisters can be expanded horizontally, so that the IC can support more and richer application scenarios, and it is completely decentralized. The cycle value is anchored with XDR, which is a stable currency obtained by weighted summation of a series of legal currencies.
 
        Therefore, cycle is equivalent to the native stable currency of IC, which is mainly used for the consumption of canisters, similar to gas on Ethereum or other public chains. In the future, if some traditional IT enterprises move their IT systems to ICs, they should make basic expectations for future cost consumption. If we use an unstable token to settle accounts, it will lead to unpredictability in all aspects of the budget. IC has taken this into consideration for a long time, so it uses cycle as the original stable currency of the whole network to settle the consumption of network resources. Another token is ICP, which is mainly used for the governance of the entire network.
 
        Users can pledge ICP, become neurons, participate in voting, and vote for more than six months to get new rewards for ICP. In addition, ICP can be converted into cycle through the exchange rate on the Internet. As a stable coin, as long as there are applications running in the whole network, cycle will always be consumed. In this case, with the gradual expansion of the whole network, the whole ICP is actually burning slowly. If there are enough Internet applications of the whole ICP in the future, and its consumption is greater than that of additional issuance, the ICP may evolve into a deflationary model. At present, IC has many functional groups on its official website, such as the recent support of IA and the expansion of stable memory of canistersmart contract.
 
        Next, I will focus on three points. (1) Threshold signature of ECDSA version. At present, the government is developing a threshold signature scheme for testing ECDSA curves. After this scheme is launched, the IC can support the signature and verification of ECDSA version. As we all know, the ECDSA version curve is mainly used on the bitcoin and Ethereum chains at present. For IC, once the threshold signature of ECDSA version is online, the interoperability of bitcoin and Ethereum ecology can be opened, making IC the computing layer, storage expansion layer of bitcoin and Ethereum, and enabling other public chains supporting ECDSA version and scripts.
 
        Of course, IC can also support other curves. However, most public chains are mainly based on consensus, so its storage and calculation are not particularly strong. Once the IC is connected with other public chains, it can become an extension layer for the calculation and storage of the major public chains, and the security of direct interoperability can be guaranteed through chainkey. In this way, the IC is equivalent to enabling most of the existing public chain infrastructure as their extension layer. (2)SNS(ServiceNetworkSystem)。 The dfinity team is developing the SNS governance system, mainly to set up a new generation Dao governance system for all DAPP instances on the IC.
 
        SNS will provide token ledger management, Dao voting management, token auction function, etc., which can help many developers, especially application developers from the traditional Web 2.0 era, reduce the difficulty of the design and governance of the entire economic center, and provide more convenience. (3)CanisterStableStorage。 Subject to wasm32, the stack memory of canisters is currently 4G, and the development team has optimized it. In addition to running 4G memory, each canisters can also add 4G stable memory, which can be understood as hard disk memory (the current scheme is 8gstable memory, but the current API can only obtain 4G stable memory). Moreover, with the subsequent upgrade of canisters, the stable memory of canisters can be expanded to a maximum of 300g storage space.
 
        In this way, for most applications of the entire canisters, the storage area has a good guarantee. At the same time, the government is also considering whether to build a separate storage subnet in the future to further reduce the storage cost. At present, from the perspective of the overall ecology of IC, more than 300 projects have been built based on IC, mainly including the application scenarios in the fields of traditional WiFi, IFT, games, social networking and media. It can be seen that compared with other public chains, IC has a better improvement in ecological richness. The following will explain the ecological advantages of IC for different roles. Low threshold: on the one hand, the did application on the IC is built on the basis of the new biological level authentication system of W3C. For most users, you do not need to remember your password. After passing the verification of biological intelligence information of local devices, you can log in and perform various operations such as account transfer and NOS governance.
 
        On the other hand, with the help of the security chip built-in in many mobile devices, it can store our key in the local hardware device. In this way, the private key can not be copied, which ensures the security of the entire private key. In addition, the design of the reverse gas model allows ordinary users to use the application on the IC without any gas. As long as a wallet function is created, they can access the application, which also greatly reduces the threshold for users to enter. Multi scene: you can build defi, NFT, gamefi and socialfi on the IC. Theoretically, as long as you can think of scenarios, you can build them on the IC.
 
        Of course, at present, the whole network is still in its infancy, and the infrastructure is still improving. Many scenarios can run MVP versions on the IC for continuous testing. If you want to support the operation of millions and tens of millions of users similar to the traditional Internet level, you need to continuously iterate and upgrade the entire network. Data autonomy: at present, on many public chains, the governance consensus is on the network, but most of the data is actually off the chain, because the storage cost on the chain is very expensive. However, the IC is stored on its own chain. In this way, it can attribute the ownership and control of the user data to the user, and give the data autonomy of the application at the subscriber line level.
 
        For example, most of gamefi's projects put its economic model on the blockchain, but its data and game logic are basically offline servers. Theoretically, this distribution can be cheated at any time. However, if you build a gamefi project based on IC, the front end, logic end and data end of your game are all on the chain. In this way, the authenticity of your data can be guaranteed, and the ownership of the data can be controlled by the user himself. Full stack development: whether you are a front-end development or a back-end development, you can build your own applications on the IC. It is not like Ethereum's main consensus, so you need to be familiar with smart contracts. However, most of your data depends on traditional centralized storage solutions, and the operation and maintenance costs are very high.
 
        While IC is equivalent to providing a one-stop solution. Developers only need to use their familiar languages, such as react development at the front end, MOTOKO or rust intelligent development at the back end, to develop your logic end and let your storage end be directly stored on canisters. For developers, it is equivalent to building an application and directly deploying it to the IC, and then there is no need to consider operation and maintenance, security and other aspects. Rich scenarios: because the IC has its own calculation and storage, it can be expanded horizontally, and it also has random numbers on the chain. Therefore, on the IC, the developer can build all the applications he wants to build, such as building a meta universe application, and your entire logical data can be built on the IC. Moreover, the technical extensibility provided by canisters is far greater than that of other networks.
 
        High combination: in the IC ecology, canisters design allows its entire application to be expanded horizontally, and canisters and Canis
 
        
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