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One article to understand cess: the first decentralized storage network to meet the needs of commercial storage

Time : 26/06/2021 Author : 4xfzqo Click : + -
        On June 21, 2022, cloudflare, a global network infrastructure service provider, failed, resulting in the disconnection of hundreds of large websites, including discord, medium, coinbase, nordvpn and feedly. This large-scale network outage caused by "single point of failure" makes more people think again about the necessity of decentralized storage networks. Blockchain advocates decentralization, but so far, storage has been a short board of decentralization. On the one hand, the front-end and Middleware of the blockchain project are deployed on the centralized server, which is vulnerable to attack; On the other hand, NFT, gamefi and other data are not stored in a decentralized manner.
        Then providing an effective solution to these existing problems will generate a new business model & mdash& mdash; How to realize the decentralized storage of nodes, NFT and gamefi of the blockchain network and the deployment of streaming media or social media on the decentralized network. The term "Web3" was interpreted by gavinwood in 2014 as a new generation of Internet brought by blockchain technology. At that time, Gavin was only the co-founder and CTO of Ethereum and had not established parity and Polkadot. In 2016, Polkadot was launched to realize the Multi Chain vision of Web3, solve the "island" problem between blockchains, and enable applications and services on the chain to communicate safely across the chain.
        Cess is the abbreviation of cumulus encrypted storage system. As a decentralized infrastructure developed based on the substrate framework, cess can not only provide a general storage module for the entire Polkadot ecosystem (it means that the Poka ecological project can store data in cess storage system through integration on the storage module of cess, and can also call these data for uplink), It can also provide decentralized data cloud storage solutions for the entire Web3 world and some Web2.0 enterprises. Compared with other decentralized storage projects, cess has solved the problems of high cost, slow retrieval, slow upload and download in the application process of decentralized storage through innovations such as random selection of rotating consensus nodes, multi copy recoverable storage proof, multi type data authentication mechanism, and proxy re encryption technology, so that decentralized storage can meet the commercial application needs of high concurrency and timeliness of communication such as streaming media.
        Cess can also support common applications such as decentralized Baidu cloud disk and decentralized Google cloud disk, and can also support gamefi, metauniverse and other new generation applications with high demand for data interaction on the chain. During polkadotdecoded, the largest global event in Poka this year, Andy Zou, manager of cess China community, pointed out the pain points of the current decentralized storage track in his sharing in Hangzhou, and proposed cess solutions, such as using the multi copy recoverable storage certification mechanism to solve the single point failure of traditional storage. Cess is the first decentralized storage network to provide spatial storage services.
        John Humphreys Ramos, global market operation manager of cess, introduced cess's randomly selected rotating consensus node (R & sup2; s) mechanism at the Buenos Aires conference. It solved the "miners' dilemma", ensured more decentralized storage of block history, and prevented the over centralization of large miners from being detrimental to the overall development of the network. Louis albuerne, director of global business development, mentioned that cess uses proxy re encryption technology and multi type data authentication mechanism (mdrc) in decentralized storage. The former is a key conversion algorithm, which can convert the ciphertext encrypted by the public key of the data owner (authorized person) into another ciphertext. The converted ciphertext can be decrypted by the private key of the data user (authorized person), without disclosing the private key and plaintext information of the data owner, so as to realize the free transaction and sharing of data among cess ecological users.
        The latter refers to that when the user uploads data to the cess storage system, the network will perform digital fingerprint extraction, fingerprint uplink and fingerprint comparison on the data, and then track and trace the data in the cess network. Although cess is mainly used for storage, as a public chain, it also needs to form a consensus on how to package transactions. Its consensus layer also needs to consider network security, performance, decentralization and other issues. There are many nodes in a blockchain network, and cess randomly selects some nodes from these nodes to maintain consensus. This mechanism is called the random selection of rotating consensus nodes mechanism (R & sup2; s).
        R² The logic of S is to realize low gas cost and high TPS while giving consideration to network security. The network randomly selects 11 formal rotating nodes from all qualified candidate nodes, that is, consensus nodes on duty, to complete the work of maintaining consensus such as blocking within a certain period of time. Candidate nodes also need to maintain their continuous contribution to the network and complete data fragmentation, encryption, redundancy and other work, which determines whether they can participate in the competition of rotation nodes in the next time window. During this period, the network will also select rotation nodes for the next time window. In order to improve the efficiency of transaction processing on the chain and ensure the decentralization of nodes, cess adopts the innovative random selection rotation consensus node mechanism (R & sup2; s) to realize block packaging and other transactions on the chain.
        This mechanism focuses on "randomness" and "consensus", that is, a certain number of rotating nodes will be responsible for the maintenance of consensus within a time window, and the randomness of selection will ensure complete decentralization. The consensus mechanism is the core of the decentralized storage network. The cess team has made special considerations for the storage public chain when designing the mechanism. R² On the one hand, the mechanism of s realizes the separation of consensus and storage, that is, to prevent "miners' dilemma" and monopoly. On the other hand, trusted execution environment (TEE) technology is used to regularly check the honesty and scheduling function of consensus nodes to ensure that nodes provide efficient services for the network through fair competition.
        Proof of multi copy recoverable storage (podr & sup2;) The mechanism ensures that the cess storage network effectively stores the customized copies when the user uploads the data, that is, after any data is uploaded to the network, it will be automatically copied into several data copies, generate the metadata for the auxiliary verification required by the recoverable certificate for each data copy, and save these metadata to the network. PoDR² As the core mechanism in the cess storage network, the biggest advantage of the storage mechanism is that the cess implements the encryption, redundancy and other protection strategies for data in the underlying design. The storage miners only need to store the processed data segments and ensure the validity of the storage.
        Even if some miners lose data, the network can restore the original data through other data segments. This mechanism will perform statistics and monitoring on all data segments that constitute a single file as a whole. Once a data segment is identified as damaged, cess will automatically generate a new data segment as a supplement and send it to a new storage miner to ensure the recoverability of the replica and improve the robustness of the overall storage network. This mechanism greatly reduces the possibility of a single point of failure and improves the security of data in the overall storage network of cess. Web3 allows data ownership to return to the user itself, and decentralized storage has also been a case of user "confirmation of rights".
        Cess's multi type data authentication mechanism extracts a data fingerprint file from each data to generate a data certificate ID. Any individual and enterprise can register their own creative achievements, which is beneficial to the tamperability of the blockchain. In order to ensure the security of user data, cess designed a decentralized proxy re encryption mechanism to enable the data owner to realize the conversion between data owners without disclosing the data content. That is, the data uploaded by the user to the cess storage network will be marked as public or private by default. If the user selects private, the network will encrypt each segment of data and then send it to the global storage miner node for storage.
        If the user chooses to authorize the data to other people, this mechanism will authorize the encryption of the data stored on the miner node, so that the specified object can decrypt the data using the data private key to achieve the purpose of accessing the data safely. "Modularization" is a development trend of the blockchain in the future. The modular blockchain only needs to focus on a few functions of the blockchain, and does not need to realize all functions. For example, rollups such as arbitrum and optimism, which focus on capacity expansion, and Celestia, which is used for consensus and data availability, are representatives of modular blockchain. In fact, many public chain projects also adopt multi-layer modular design to realize complete blockchain functions.
        Such as the implementation layer and consensus layer of future Ethereum, the relay chain and parallel chain of Polkadot, etc. The reason why cess decided to build a complete blockchain on its own instead of just designing a module is that in addition to transaction and storage certificates, its blocks also need to include records of storage space and storage content metadata of the whole network. The network architecture of cess can be divided into four layers: blockchain service layer, distributed storage resource layer, distributed content distribution layer and application layer. The blockchain service layer handles all transactions and contracts, including functions such as consensus algorithm, storage proof, payment and incentive. The specific consensus algorithm has been described above, and the nodes participating in the consensus are also called consensus miners.
        The distributed storage resource layer is a network for storing files, data and other information uploaded by users. Storage miners can submit storage certificates to receive rewards. When planning storage space, cess's consensus miners intelligently manage all storage spaces through "pooling" technology to form a decentralized cloud storage pool, and then randomly distribute the sliced data segments to meet the requirements of miners, so as to maximize the effective use of decentralized storage space, avoid the monopoly of large miners, and realize intelligent cloud space management. The distributed content distribution layer is equivalent to a decentralized content distribution network (CDN), which cooperates to complete the rapid delivery of content in a distributed manner. The content distribution layer of cess includes retrieval miners and cache miners.
        On the application layer, various applications can be built. Compared with other decentralized storage service providers, cess not only provides distributed storage services, but also aims to build a real cloud storage ecosystem. Cess is a public chain developed by using substrate. While supporting wasm, it will also be compatible with EVM, providing convenience for project migration and development. The design of the whole architecture includes four kinds of miners: storage miners, consensus miners, retrieval miners and cache miners. They are independent and cooperate with each other to ensure the normal operation of the network. On this basis, developers can build various applications on cess.
        Because all kinds of miners can perform their own duties and focus on their own work, the threshold of storage hardware participating in cess has also been lowered, and only 1TB of storage space is required to become a storage miner. Miners will receive data segments randomly, which does not depend on the size of the miners themselves. The retrieval miners and cache miners in the content distribution layer do not need to engage in storage related transactions, so that the retrieval, upload and download speed of cess can meet the needs of commercial applications. In addition to the above technologies, at the user level, the biggest difference between cess and other decentralized storage projects is that it can provide dynamic data storage services. This means that cess pioneered the service of providing spatial storage for the first time in the decentralized commercial storage track. Users can modify and delete data at any time. The fast retrieval and data return are very satisfied with the high-frequency, fast and low-cost needs of commercial storage.
        Therefore, cess can meet various application scenarios such as streaming media, social applications, NFT, gamefi, medical / scientific research transaction sharing platform, etc. Cess also plans to use Oracle to track the prices of other decentralized storage projects, so that the storage cost of cess customers is not higher than that of other projects. Cess tokens can be used to purchase resource services, pay network gas fees, pledge nodes for mining, encourage DAPP development, and encourage miners to maintain the normal operation of cess network. The total amount of cess tokens issued is 10 billion, and the specific token distribution is as follows:. 15% is allocated to early contributors, with an allocation of 1.5 billion. Within 6 years, line% is allocated to miners, with an allocation of 5.5 billion. Line% is allocated to communities and Dao, with an allocation of 1 billion;.
        As the first decentralized storage network dedicated to meet the needs of commercial storage, cess has realized the protection of data privacy and security through technological innovation, such as the multi copy recoverable storage certification mechanism, and maximized the utilization of storage resources through the "pooling" of data resources. Cess has made outstanding contributions to the innovation and progress of current decentralized storage projects and the design concept of commercial storage services. In addition, cess can meet decentralized storage applications in various scenarios. The cess network is based on the substrate framework and starts from the poca ecology to create the cess ecological grand plan and provide solutions for the infrastructure of various decentralized applications. It will not only support wasm, but also be compatible with EVM smart contracts.
        This provides global developers with an efficient decentralized application development mode and paves the way for the rapid development of cess. (source: visual China).
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