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Blockchain consensus algorithm and decentralization

Time : 05/03/2022 Author : tqgjzv Click : + -
        Consensus algorithm is the core of blockchain and should be approved by everyone. However, in the actual operation and work of the blockchain system, some blockchains are chasing. The so-called consensus algorithm is an algorithm used by different network nodes to reach a consensus operation, and the operation is determined by the calculation results. In other words, a consensus algorithm is a series of processes and rules that are executed to achieve distributed consistency. When the nodes distributed in different places negotiate according to this algorithm or this set of rules, they can always make a decision on one or some problems, so as to realize the consistency of different nodes in the distributed system. The consensus algorithm of bitcoin is to calculate whether the hash value (hash calculation) of the data of several transactions (data items) is smaller than a predetermined value.
 
        Some people say that the rules of playing mahjong and Hu cards are the consensus algorithm for the end of a game. For the blockchain system, the consensus algorithm ensures the consistency of transaction records between each node in the blockchain system. The consensus algorithm also includes the part of verifying the legitimacy and correctness of transactions, thus maintaining the consistency of transactions and block data of each node. Blockchain has many characteristics, including decentralization, distributed accounting, non change, traceability, etc. The first of these characteristics should be decentralization. The concept of decentralization comes from the central concept. The so-called decentralization means that there is no central node in a computer network, all nodes have the same status, and there is no node that commands and cooperates with other nodes.
 
        Both centralized and decentralized computer networks are built to meet different business processing needs. 1. The first is fault tolerance. For a computer network with a central architecture, if the central node computer has problems, it needs to be constantly repaired to maintain the overall operation. In the blockchain system, due to the decentralized architecture, there is no problem with the central node, and the problem of any node will not affect the entire network, which is fault tolerance. 2. The second is anti aggression. If a computer network with a central architecture directly attacks the computer of the central node, it will obtain the effect of destroying the network system efficiently. However, for decentralized distributed blockchain, without a central node computer, it can not achieve the purpose of attacking a whole and destroying the whole. In this way, it can effectively improve the anti attack ability.
 
        3. The third defense is conspiracy. Centralization or the centralization of a few operations. Through computer negotiation, one or several nodes can manipulate the business work of the whole system and carry out it according to their needs. If they can conduct illegal acts, other node computers cannot prevent them, which will cause some trust crisis. Consensus algorithm makes it impossible for a few people to control the network system, thus preventing a few people from conspiring to commit illegal acts, or greatly reducing the possibility of a few people conspiring to commit illegal acts. As the most fundamental feature of the blockchain, decentralization must be considered from the perspective of decentralization if it is to be truly applicable to the application scenarios of the blockchain.
 
        Who realizes and guarantees decentralization? It is realized and guaranteed by consensus algorithm. In a network, the result of the blockchain consensus determines which node will calculate the block. This node becomes the current accounting node. Other nodes check the calculation result of the accounting node, that is, the candidate block. The calculation is correct, and the block becomes the latest block of the blockchain. What kind of consensus algorithm is an excellent consensus algorithm? An excellent consensus algorithm needs to meet at least two conditions: the consensus result is random and equal probability, and the consensus calculation efficiency is high. A good decentralized blockchain shows that the consensus results are random and equal probability in the consensus mechanism, so that the random probability of each node of the network becoming a billing node is equal probability. Only in this way can the fairness and fairness of the blockchain be shown.
 
        The excellent consensus algorithm ensures that each node in the blockchain network has the right to account with the same probability. From the perspective of the network as a whole, no node has more opportunities to account than other nodes, thus achieving a good decentralized effect.
 
        
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