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Research on data sharing platform based on blockchain + privacy computing technology

Time : 26/07/2021 Author : 6tphk7 Click : + -
        Nowadays, data has become the basic key strategic resource comparable to oil, and it is subverting the development mode of various industries. With the construction of the digital economy and the rapid expansion of the market scale of the data industry, data is constantly generated, flowing and exchanged in various industries and fields. As we all know, data sharing and circulation is the key link to release the value of data. With the increase of data exchange and sharing, many risks such as ownership, compliance and security have begun to appear, and problems such as data sharing and privacy cannot be guaranteed have emerged. How to realize the sharing and circulation of data and release the value of data on the premise of ensuring security and privacy is an urgent problem to be solved.
        "Unwilling" to share, data owners cannot benefit from the shared data, the industry lacks a data value evaluation system, and lacks incentives for all sharing participants. "Dare not" share, the security and privacy demands of the data cannot be met, and once the data leaves the original use scenario, it will become uncontrollable, and there will be risks of improper use or abuse, endangering its own interests. At the same time, there is a lack of real-time monitoring means of shared data and authorization mechanism for data use, and there are also problems such as the inability to obtain the sharing scope and the legitimacy of the sharing participants. It is not easy to share, and the information standards of various institutions are not uniform. Unable to obtain continuous, multi-source and standardized data resources, hindering the improvement of data exchange and sharing efficiency.
        Privacy computing solves the core data privacy problem and eliminates the concern that data holders are "afraid" to share. Privacy computing technologies include secure multi-party computing (MPC), trusted execution environment (TEE) and federated learning (FL) to achieve secure sharing of privacy data. Among them, secure multi-party Computing mainly solves the problem of using multi-party data for secure computing without a trusted third party, so as to ensure that each data owner does not expose any other data except the calculation results, and is used for privacy arithmetic operation, set operation and statistical analysis. Trusted execution environment mainly relies on trusted hardware. By building a trusted execution environment with the help of CPU chip, encrypted data can be decrypted and calculated in this environment, and external (operating system, BIOS, etc.) cannot obtain the data, thus ensuring the privacy and security of the original data.
        In practical applications, application protocols need to be encapsulated on secure multi-party computing or tee before privacy computing technology can be used in specific scenarios, including joint query, joint statistics, joint modeling and joint prediction. The blockchain technology provides the ability of CO governance and co management, and is responsible for the trusted cooperation between various data participants, data users and data circulation infrastructure operators in the whole data circulation process. Blockchain plays a key role in the three pain points in the process of data sharing. To solve the problem of "unwilling" sharing: blockchain alliance governance provides a collaborative governance mechanism between various participants in the process of data circulation and a service management mechanism for trusted data circulation of data elements. Through the voting strategy based on blockchain smart contracts, it adjusts the profit distribution parameters of alliance participants, the access and exit of alliance members, and the system upgrading and transformation, and other transaction management work, to solve the incentive problem of data sharers.
        To solve the problem of "dare not" sharing: unlike privacy computing, which directly solves the problem of data privacy and thus eliminates the concern of "dare not" sharing, blockchain is to ensure the authenticity of data use, authorization and supervision in the process of data circulation, and help eliminate the concern of "dare not" sharing caused by data abuse, unauthorized use and forged authorization. Through the smart contract rights confirmation and authorization service, it provides the ownership relationship confirmation and authority control capability of each data, and combines with effective mechanisms such as digital identity to ensure that the data rights confirmation and authorization are accurate to the person; The traceability audit service supports the chain registration of key steps in the process of trusted data circulation. At the same time, it provides multi-dimensional and all-round record audit capability based on trusted data to facilitate the regulatory authority to conduct the whole process supervision and query on data circulation.
        To solve the "difficult" sharing problem: blockchain technology provides such capabilities as on chain data directory + data circulation task life cycle management, and provides convenient retrieval and smooth collaboration services for the sharing process. Among them, the data directory on the chain records the meta information of all the data participating in the data circulation, including the data name, the affiliated unit, the access method and the release time, and provides services such as retrieval, classification and verification of trusted data by virtue of the non tamperable characteristics of the blockchain; Data circulation task lifecycle management includes distributed privacy computing task lifecycle management, task state management, participant management, etc. The blockchain provides shared security and reliable storage, introduces data sharing contracts to achieve accurate authorization on the data chain, and provides data supply and demand matching, recording the flow and exchange records of receiving and receiving.
        Complete the issuance, revocation and arbitration of disputes during the use of data use certificates through the blockchain. The two core technologies that constitute the data sharing platform based on the blockchain are introduced from a macro perspective. The following is the sharing process, which is used to connect the entire technical context. In summary, the blockchain provides a storage medium for trusted information. By building a data collaboration network, it models and realizes business sharing processes on the network. By building a business computing model, the model is programmed according to the meta information on the chain. The model flows with the process and is executed using local data. The sharing goal is achieved in the process operation and circulation. In the process, the data of different institutions need not be sent out, and only the calculation results are shared and transmitted.
        The data sharing platform based on the blockchain builds a set of unified implementation standards for data representation, indexing, positioning, query, exchange and data traceability audit for various data sources to cooperate and share in the network, and provides business process customization and other capabilities, supports rapid development, deployment and implementation of shared services, carries out business cooperation, realizes the reliable interconnection of inter agency data, and solves the security and privacy problems in the process of data cooperation. Import: data is uploaded to the local data sharing node. Import provides data management requirements, and the import process will uniformly represent the data. According to different types of imported data, different processing will be performed, including fragmentation and file system services.
        Naming: through self describing data structure, the unique ID of the network is formed, and the concept of file system path is also provided. Provide data positioning and searching capabilities in the network. Publish: publish the meta information of shareable data (such as data title, data usage description, etc.) to the blockchain, and set default data access permissions for some institutions. Synchronization: synchronize the data element information to the data sharing platform based on the blockchain. The data sharing platform based on the blockchain is a collection of data on the chain. Any party can query and obtain the data here. The demand side obtains data, arranges business processes, and starts data sharing. The node will assign sharing tasks according to the instructions of the process. At the same time, the virtual opportunity of the node loads the business computing model and uses the local data to execute the computing logic.
        Retrieval: retrieve the data needed through the data sharing platform based on the blockchain, including the unified description of the data and the metadata information on the chain, which constructs the index of retrieval. Request: request the access voucher token of relevant data, provide the integration mechanism in the platform, and according to the data release method, the integration transfer and data authorization record will be performed when requesting data. When the data is authorized access, it is necessary to send a data access application to the data provider to obtain the token issued by the smart contract after the data provider reviews. Acquisition: the data requester customizes the process and calculation model through its own business, flows to different institutions according to the process, obtains data from the provider through the node ID of the network and the obtained token, and transmits data or calculation results point-to-point through the data sharing platform based on the blockchain.
        Use: the calculation model will use the data obtained by authorization or purchased by points, and use our data by loading the model to calculate the results. Despite the rapid development of blockchain and privacy computing technology, the relevant applications are still insufficient. The current data flow mode is still based on the original data transmission. The data privacy security problem needs to be solved urgently. The data circulation industry has shown rapid development in terms of business development, technology evolution, policy and standard formulation. If data value can be mined to the maximum extent, data must be fully circulated. Traditional data processing technology does not do enough in privacy security, which restricts data circulation to a certain extent. With the continuous development of multi-party trusted collaboration such as blockchain, privacy computing, big data and data processing technology, as well as the continuous improvement of national policies, regulations and standards, the safe sharing and circulation of data will be gradually solved, The value of data will be gradually released.
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