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Blockchain definition,In depth analysis of metauniverse industry: thinking about the industry layout of metauniverse

Time : 04/09/2021 Author : p7okaq Click : + -
        Metaverse originated from science fiction. In 1992, science fiction writer Neil middot; Stephenson mentioned the concepts of "metaverse" and "Avatar" in avalanche & mdash& mdash; People can have their own virtual avatars in metaverse, and this virtual world is called "metauniverse". In the following nearly 30 years, the concept of metauniverse was presented in the film and television works such as the matrix and the number one player, as well as games such as Sims, my world and fortress night.
        There is no clear definition of the metauniverse. The description of the metauniverse in Wikipedia is: a 3D virtual space with the characteristics of convergence and physical persistence through virtual augmented physical reality, based on the future Internet and with the characteristics of link perception and sharing. At present, the Internet industry has gradually reached a certain consensus on the concept of the meta universe, that is, the meta universe should include the physical world and the virtual world, and it is a lasting and stable real-time virtual space based on the real world. It should have a large number of users and other participants, a fully functioning economic system, comprehensive and rich digital content, and even a virtual digital world. Before avalanche was put forward, the concept of meta universe was mainly displayed in the form of games.
        As early as 1979, there was a real-time open social world with text interaction as the interface and connecting multiple users. Since then, the open multiplayer game has experienced the evolution from text to 2D and then to 3D, and the content of interaction and UGC has been added. The game creators meet the user's massive needs for experience and content through the added dimension and interaction degree. Second life, an online virtual game platform developed by Linden laboratory in the United States in 2003, is the first phenomenal virtual world in history and has universal properties. Players can perform many real-life activities, such as eating, dancing, shopping, karaoke, driving, traveling and so on.
        The game only provides land, and everything on the land is owned by the player. The player can make everything he wants to make, and create a virtual society parallel to the real society. The game has the world editing function and the developed virtual economy system. It has its own token Linden dollar, which can be exchanged with fiat currency. For example, a Chinese woman once sold her cheongsam in the second life, and she had a million dollar asset. Because the game currency can be officially converted into US dollars, the official platform of second life has strictly controlled the exchange rate of US dollars and game currency for a long time to ensure the economic balance of the game and avoid the shrinking of the value of the game currency of the player.
        With the development of technology, the boundary between virtual reality and reality is becoming more and more blurred in the game world. In April 2020, the famous American pop singer Travis Scott held a virtual concert with a virtual image in the game fortress night, which attracted more than 12 million players from around the world, breaking the boundary between entertainment and games. During the epidemic, in order to prevent students from missing the graduation ceremony due to the epidemic, the University of California, Berkeley rebuilt the campus in the sand table game my world. Students gathered together in virtual avatars to complete the ceremony. In addition, due to the inability to conduct offline parties, some parents held birthday parties for their children on my world or roblox, and many people's daily social activities have also become fishing, catching butterflies and visiting each other on tommori island.
        1) Easy to use. In the virtual world of the universe, human work and entertainment are all involved. It is required that the virtual world and the real world should be integrated, and the use and participation must be very convenient. This requires that the relevant hardware equipment should be more portable than mobile phones and have no threshold. This concept is actually what roblox calls lowfriction and anywhere. 2) Immersive experience. Immersive experience is an immersive feeling. It can hardly distinguish the boundary between the virtual world and the real world. Virtual and real coexist and merge. This corresponds to the immersive and variety mentioned by roblox.
        3) Social networks. Without social networking, it can not be called the meta universe. Social networks are the standard configuration of the meta universe. As a social animal, human beings have been social since the primitive times. Only through communication and communication can there be sparks of thinking and progress of human civilization. This corresponds to identity and friends mentioned by roblox. 4) Economic system. Economic activities are the foundation of society. As a virtual society, the meta universe must have a fair economic system. The elements supporting the meta universe economic system include digital creation, digital assets, digital market and digital currency. 5) Civilization.
        The ultimate level of the meta universe is to form its own civilization system. The meta universe is not unique. In the process of living together, the residents of each meta universe set common rules, created various digital assets, established different organizational structures, and gradually evolved into a civilized society. Metauniverse aims to build a lasting virtual shared space while still maintaining the perception and experience of the real world. Immersive interactive devices provide completely real, lasting and smooth interactive experience for players to enter the metauniverse. They are the bridge between the real world and the metauniverse. On the one hand, they provide players with immersive interactive experience of real body feeling to the maximum extent, and on the other hand, they allow players to maintain their perception of the real world.
        The realization of immersive feeling needs to rely on a terminal device interface. At present, most games need to be operated with the help of mobile phones, PCs, keyboards, handles and other peripherals. However, it is impossible to achieve the pseudo line D display required by the meta universe, and AR / VR with large viewing angle and high resolution is expected to become one of the important access modes in the meta universe. 1) Technology embryonic period (1968-2012): VR / AR new technology was proposed and gradually entered the public's vision. In 1968, Ivan sutherlan, the father of computer graphics in the United States, organized the development of the first computer graphics driven helmet mounted display and head tracking system.
        2) Expectation inflation period (2012-2016): mass enterprises / research institutions began to rush into the VR / AR field with the intention of seizing new growth points to take the lead, and a large number of VR / AR equipment emerged. In 2012, Google launched a generation of glasses products of Google glass. In 2013, Facebook purchased oculus for us $2 billion and launched VR helmet. In 2014, VR / AR concept entered the market vision and was considered as the next generation general computing platform to replace smart phones. Facebook and Microsoft have successively entered the VR / AR field, and Sony, Samsung, HTC and other large manufacturers have also launched relevant hardware products.
        3) Foam burst period (2016-2019): due to the unclear business model, the bottleneck of network, hardware and content has not been broken. People have gradually revised their expectations of the "bright future" of VR / AR, the enthusiasm of the capital market has decreased, the investment has been tightened, and the VR / AR industry has ebbed into a cold winter. 4) Steady recovery period (2019 to now): Based on the experience and lessons of the previous generation of products, new technologies are gradually improved, the industrial chain is becoming mature, and the product experience and cost performance are significantly improved. In 2020, the maturity of various links in the VR / AR industry chain was improved, and the superimposed epidemic situation promoted the rise of home demand. The demand for consumer VR equipment represented by oculus Quest 2 released by Facebook grew strongly.
        In 2020, VR / AR industry investment and financing were active, and the amount and quantity returned to the peak level in 2016. AR / VR development is accelerated, and 2021 is expected to be the first year of shipment. Since 2019, with the iteration of optical technology, the upgrading of network environment, the upgrading of product experience, the improvement of cost performance and the launch of popular VR content, the VR / AR industry has been driven to achieve growth again. Benefiting from the residential economy, the gradual improvement of product ecology and the reduction of product prices, AR / VR shipments are expected to achieve high-speed growth in 2021. According to IDC's prediction, the global VR shipment volume will reach 8.37 million units in 2021, with a year-on-year growth rate of 50.8%; Ar shipments reached 580000 units, with a year-on-year increase of 99.9%.
        The benchmark product oculus 2 leads the industry to recovery. With the continuous development of chip, optics, display, algorithm and other technologies, VR products have gradually solved the defects of early products, such as large volume and weight, high price, long delay and low resolution. In September 2020, Facebook's oculus Quest series VR head display released a new generation of product quest2, which not only improved the resolution and refresh rate of the device, significantly improved the endurance and reduced the delay, but also adopted a subsidy sales strategy to sell at or below the cost. Quest2 is priced at US $299. Once launched, it will ignite the market and is expected to lead the industry to recovery.
        When the number of VR industry users reaches 10 million, content developers will gain a lot & mdash& mdash; Develop more quality content & mdash& mdash; Hardware sales growth & mdash& mdash; Positive feedback for developers to make more profits. We believe that this critical turning point is expected to come in 2021. According to statistics, the sales volume of quest2 will be 2.5 million units in 2020, and it is expected that the sales volume will be 7-8 million units in 2021. In addition, the sales volume of quest1 will exceed 1 million units and the predicted sales volume of VR products of other brands will exceed 2 million units in 2021. It is expected that the cumulative sales volume of VR products in 2021 will exceed 10 million units for the first time.
        Computing power, also known as computing power, refers to the processing capacity of data, which is determined by the three indicators of data calculation, storage and transmission. The virtual content, blockchain network and artificial intelligence technology that constitute the meta universe cannot be separated from the support of computing power. At present, there is a huge demand for computing power in the AI field. If we use petaflop / s-day as a unit to measure the computing power, the generation confrontation network (GAN) that can play "face changing" needs about 3 petaflop. At present, the world's fastest supercomputer, fugaku in Japan, has 550 petaflop per second. However, the computing demand of gpt-3 has actually reached 3640 petaflop.
        The demand for computing power in the meta universe is infinite. Computing power supports the creation and experience of virtual content in the meta universe. More real modeling and interaction require stronger computing power as a premise. The extensive application of artificial intelligence in the meta universe has led to the exponential explosion of the consumption of computing power in the meta universe. The continuous online and creative work of large-scale users needs nearly endless computing power as support. Overall, it is estimated that metaverse will generate the largest demand for computing power in human history. However, the computing power of computers is a scarce resource in the past, present and future. Quoting Chris Dixon, a partner of US dollar capital a16z, "throughout history, every excellent computing resource in the world has been in short supply, and the CPU computing power is always insufficient; the GPU computing power is never enough.
        ”Therefore, the supply and development of computing power will affect the development of metaverse. Cloud game is a way to break through the bottleneck of computing power in the metauniverse. The current computing architecture can no longer meet the needs of the metauniverse for low threshold and high experience, and the separation of computing and interactive devices has become a trend. Cloud games will make it possible to create a low threshold and accessible virtual world. Cloud game definition: cloud game is a game mode based on cloud computing. In the operation mode of cloud game, all games are run on the server side, and the rendered game images are compressed and transmitted to the user through the network. On the client side, the user's game equipment does not need any high-end processor and graphics card, but only needs basic video decompression capability.
        The layout of cloud games involves many aspects of the industrial chain, such as operators, R & D, operation, cloud services, industry organizations, etc. However, due to the high cost to be paid, those that can truly achieve a comprehensive landing are still the leaders of the industry. For example, Google stadia and Amazon Luna perform all game operations in the cloud, and then push the entire rendering experience to the user's device as a video stream. The client device only needs to play this video and send IO information to realize the operation. However, the delay of cloud games will significantly affect the user's experience in the meta universe. A common game requires at least 60 frames per second (more than twice the video standard) and preferably 2K or even 4K definition.
        It is very difficult to transmit audio and video information to all players in the metauniverse in real time through the cloud. In addition, in the cloud game, every input of the player must be uploaded to the game engine, and after a series of calculations, the graphics information calculated by the cloud will be sent back to the player. There is also a delay in this process. Theoretically, such operation feedback should be real-time and continuous for each player. However, for games with strong sense of immersion, such as FPS and VR games, a delay of more than 50ms will greatly affect the experience. Edge computing can effectively reduce delay and improve computing efficiency. Mobile edge computing (MEC) (hereinafter referred to as edge computing) is to provide network, computing, storage and other infrastructure on the network edge side near the data source or user, and provide cloud services and it environment for edge applications, so that consumers can enjoy uninterrupted high-quality network experience.
        Edge computing is a distributed infrastructure. Compared with the cloud computing services that are centrally deployed and far away from the user side, edge computing is closer to the user side or data source. It can also solve the problems of too long delay and too large convergence flow, and provide better support for real-time and bandwidth intensive services. Under the concept of metauniverse, cloud games can reduce delay and expand bandwidth through edge computing. Edge computing makes use of the advantages of local deployment to process and store data in the edge network. The decentralized layout has lower requirements on network bandwidth and is closer to the user terminal, so the delay is effectively shortened. 5g: the communication technology with low delay, high reliability and large bandwidth in Dalian has gone through four generations since the 1980s. It has realized the functions of analog voice communication, digital voice communication, mobile broadband Internet access and mobile Internet, and has formed four mature wireless communication networks.
        As a new generation of communication technology to meet the development needs of the future mobile Internet and the Internet of things, 5g will finally build a new communication network on the basis of the previous four generations of communication technologies, and truly realize the interconnection of everything. 5g has laid a solid foundation for the explosion of next generation applications. By the end of 2020, China had built the world's largest 5g network, opened more than 718000 5g base stations, and achieved full coverage of 5g networks in all cities above the prefecture level. In 2021, 600000 5g base stations are expected to be built. At present, 5g penetration rate is still in the stage of rapid improvement. 5g network has strong performance, high speed, low latency and massive connection. Superimposed with edge computing technology, the game can be rendered in the cloud, helping users obtain rendering quality comparable to that of local hosts with ultra-low latency.
        After the 5g network is fully completed, the high-quality and reliable 5g network is expected to help the rapid development of the cloud game industry. WiFi means wireless network connection
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