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Application, influence and governance of new technology in China's public opinion field

Time : 29/03/2022 Author : 835fxh Click : + -
        [Abstract] in the past two years, 5g, big data, artificial intelligence and other new technologies have advanced by leaps and bounds. The application of these new technologies has brought opportunities and challenges to media development, public opinion guidance and public opinion disposal. In order to ensure the healthy development of public opinion ecology, in addition to formulating laws and regulations regulating the application of new technologies at the level of public opinion management and improving the public opinion supervision system, mainstream media should actively adapt to the new pattern of communication, deepen media integration, and strengthen the risk control management of new technologies and implement predictive management from the perspective of industry development. Through multi-party cooperation and concerted efforts, we will build a clean and prosperous public opinion space in an all-round and whole process. In the past two years, 5g, big data, blockchain, artificial intelligence, VR, AR and other technologies have been in the ascendant in the media field, which has not only changed the traditional mode of information transmission, but also triggered profound changes in the media format and public opinion pattern. While enjoying the dividends brought by new technologies and thinking about the possibilities of future development, how can mainstream media better play the ballast of public opinion, the adhesive of society The role of value as a weathervane and the construction of a healthy and stable public opinion field is an era proposition worth exploring.
        From the development history of the media industry, every change of it is closely related to technological progress. The application of new technology will promote the continuous transformation and upgrading of the media industry, greatly change the original mode of information production and dissemination, and bring new characteristics to the public opinion field. 5g has become a new engine for the transformation of media formats. In 2019, the Ministry of industry and information technology issued a 5g business license to the three giants in China's communication industry and China Radio and television, marking China's entry into the 5g era. 5g technology not only solves many problems of basic communication, but also provides assistance for the efficient flow of information and the construction of "interconnection of all things" in society. On the one hand, 5g's high-speed, low delay and large capacity characteristics have led to dramatic changes in visual communication, enabling online high-quality synchronous live broadcasting to be achieved.
        The familiar short video is used to realize the shooting, editing of mobile terminals and sharing on social platforms, and has better visual effects. In addition, short video apps are easy to operate, and their communication modes are fragmented and fast-food, which greatly improves user participation and stickiness, and spawns a variety of short video platforms. On the other hand, 5g technology also helps to create VR, AR and other virtual application scenarios, and better break through the shackles of plane narration. By constructing simulation scenes to restore events, the expressiveness of news is enhanced. In particular, users can independently mine the information they need from different clues and choose the process of event development, making the interactive experience between communication content and users more immersive.
        Blockchain helps to create a real and objective public opinion field. Blockchain is a new application mode composed of distributed data storage, point-to-point transmission, consensus mechanism, encryption algorithm, etc. Although blockchain technology originated in the financial field, it can be combined with many fields. With the application of blockchain technology in the media field, there are five categories of blockchain news media, including blockchain news websites, blockchain social networking websites, browser plug-ins, blockchain search engines, and other types of media cooperating with blockchain media to produce blockchain news. Using blockchain technology to produce and disseminate news information can be targeted to determine false information and ensure authenticity; Strengthen the transparency of information production and dissemination, and promote the objectivity of news; Give users the right to choose news and promote the development of public news.
        These characteristics help to reduce the spread of false information and rumors, and ensure the quality of information in the field of public opinion. Blockchain technology uses mathematical methods to solve trust problems, which helps to consolidate the authority and credibility of mainstream media in the field of public opinion. When browsing or sharing information, blockchain technology can protect the privacy of netizens to some extent, weaken the impact of commercial Internet platforms, and increase users' sense of security when speaking. AI promotes the effective landing of mainstream public opinion. Artificial intelligence technology optimizes the process of news information production and dissemination, and reduces a lot of tedious and repetitive work for media people. In the stage of finding clues, the scope of previous news sources has been expanded. Relying on big data technology, geographic location technology, somatosensory technology, news sources have become richer, which brings more possibilities to news gathering and editing.
        In the stage of collecting information, we use sensors, speech recognition and other technologies to ensure that the required information can be collected quickly and accurately; In the production information stage, through the rapid retrieval of relevant information in the database, automatic processing and integration, we can achieve high efficiency in speed and quantity; In the stage of product distribution, the personalization, customization and accuracy of news push can be improved through the calculation and analysis of information content and user browsing behavior. With virtual image, speech synthesis, expression synthesis and other technologies as well as in-depth learning, AI anchors have come into people's vision. In terms of function, AI synthetic anchors can not only effectively reduce production costs in daily workflow, but also improve the timeliness and quality of reports in emergencies, but also have the ability to broadcast in different scenarios.
        3R technology highlights the appeal of public opinion through immersion communication. VR refers to virtual reality technology, AR is augmented reality technology, and MR is hybrid reality technology. The biggest feature of these technologies is to bring people an immersive sense of depth, and give users a better sensory experience and expression perspective. From the perspective of information production, 3R technology breaks through the previous transmission carriers of text, pictures and videos, creates 360 degree landscapes and 3D and other multidimensional presentation methods, and makes the single, flat narrative of the media more diversified and three-dimensional. From the perspective of user experience, 3R technology builds various scenes and presents different expression effects in the scene according to the specific content, so that users are no longer passive "audiences", and can independently select and experience "plot" when feeling the news scene.
        The media uses VR technology to produce panoramic video and live broadcast, which can reproduce the news scene almost truly. Users can not only experience the scene 360 degrees, but also use devices to interact with "objects" in VR. In the 2019 National Day military parade, Xinhua News Agency adopted the form of multi seat panoramic VR live broadcast, so that the audience can feel the shock of the scene without leaving home. Algorithm recommendation helps to enhance the pertinence of public opinion guidance. With the continuous development of artificial intelligence and big data technology, algorithms gradually enter the screening, processing and distribution of information. Algorithm recommendation is a technology that infers and pushes the news information that users may like through the corresponding computer algorithm.
        At the micro level, algorithm recommendation not only improves the efficiency of media dissemination of information and individual users' access to information, and promotes a closer relationship between the two, but also enhances the openness of news information production and dissemination mode on the basis of paying full attention to user feedback. At the macro level, algorithmic recommendation, as an efficient way to push news information, has promoted the reform of the mainstream media and changed the ecological environment of the public opinion field. With the development of mobile Internet, the popularity of smart phones, and the rise of social media, the impact of algorithm recommendation is increasing day by day, and it has become the standard configuration for many news media and Internet companies to release information. Algorithmic recommendation rose from news aggregation platforms and social media, and attracted a large number of users with its unique distribution mode. This advantage inspired mainstream media to pay attention to the personalized needs of the audience and media usage habits, adopt personalized recommendation technology on their own social platforms, or cooperate with some platform media, with the help of their more advanced algorithm technology and large-scale user groups, to attract the attention of the audience, To enhance the communication effect, it can be said that the mainstream media can grasp the social public opinion more comprehensively and accurately through the algorithm, realize the dynamic tracking of specific topics and specific scenes, as well as the real-time prediction of the potential trends of public opinion hot spots, and enhance the pertinence and effectiveness of public opinion guidance.
        As a technical tool, the systematic changes brought by the media to the society are far greater than the impact of the specific information transmitted by the media daily. The development direction of media originally reflects people's demands of the times, and therefore has become an important variable affecting the gathering and diffusion of social opinions. New technology not only affects the production and release of information and the reform of media mechanism at the micro level, but also affects the communication pattern and public opinion ecology at the macro level. In a sense, the use of new technology has become an important means for the mainstream media to consolidate and expand the main front of public opinion and grasp the initiative of public opinion. "Decentralization" and "re centralization" of the field of public opinion. Understanding the new characteristics of the current public opinion field is the premise of improving the "four forces" of news public opinion.
        New technology makes information aggregation platforms, search engines and chat applications become the main channels for the public to obtain information and express their views, making the role of some commercial social platforms in the current public opinion field more and more important, which has impacted the traditional mode of mainstream media dominating public opinion by controlling the communication channels. While enriching the functions of the Internet, technology is also enriching and developing human connection forms. Technology promotes the enrichment of connection and interaction means between users and the diversity of connection dimensions. It is with the development of connection technology and platform that the ability to transform individual energy into social energy continues to improve. The new technology has helped the vast number of netizens to obtain information and exchange views conveniently and efficiently, especially helping them to establish a wide range of contacts between individuals and others, organizations and society.
        Ordinary netizens began to become the main force to release the latest information and form public opinion, resulting in the weakening of the ability of the mainstream media to condense consensus, build identity, dominate social public opinion and carry out social mobilization in the public opinion field, resulting in the "decentralization" of the public opinion field. Netizens are widely involved in the production and dissemination of information. The expression of their attitudes, views and emotions is easy to cause public opinion events after fermentation. The dominant position of public opinion of the mainstream media is weakened, and the right of communication is partially transferred. At present, the mainstream media should adhere to the premise of people-centered, take video priority and mobile priority as the starting point, adopt social communication strategies, strengthen the construction of "two micro ends, one fast and one shake", and continue to promote the development of media integration in depth. The goal is to enhance and strengthen the guidance and communication power of news and public opinion of the mainstream media, and promote the "re centralization" of the mainstream media, Ensure the correct direction of leading public opinion and values.
        Technological empowerment intensifies the complexity of public opinion itself. Public opinion is the sum of belief, attitude, opinion and emotional expression. The differences in cognition, attitude and appeal of various public opinion subjects aggravate the complexity of public opinion. First of all, the mobile Internet has driven the sharp increase of mobile end users and promoted the rapid development of we media. We media has a strong profit seeking nature, and the output values often have a certain commerciality, which is easy to induce and form irrational and emotional public opinion, disturbing the normal order of the public opinion field. Secondly, on the basis of the technical empowerment of the business platform, a large number of netizens use short videos to record and share their lives, express their views, vent their emotions, etc., and become more and more active, with higher and higher participation. The content of self-expression is more and more diverse, increasing the hidden danger of causing all kinds of public opinion.
        Thirdly, all kinds of network circles, communities and platforms spawned by new technologies have further formed public opinion fields of different groups. These fields have become the distribution center of all kinds of information and the fermentation pool of all kinds of public opinion, which are easy to cause the viral transmission of group polarization effect and negative emotions, and challenge the "rationality" and "objectivity" advocated by the mainstream public opinion. Finally, the robot Navy composed of automated writing and intelligent social technology can influence users' views by creating public opinion, causing public opinion to deviate. Once netizens fall into the environment of "man-machine mob", the influence of conformity psychology will appear, emotion will overwhelm rationality, impulse will replace thinking, attitude will become more extreme, and it will be more difficult to accept opinions contrary to their own views. In this case, online public opinion is easy to be incited and manipulated.
        New technology has widened the boundary of the main body of public opinion. In 2019, when presiding over the 12th collective study of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, General Secretary Xi summarized the characteristics of China's media at this stage, and put forward the concept of "four all media" of "full media, holographic media, all member media, and all effect media", in which "all member media" refers to all kinds of communication subjects who enter the public opinion field of information exchange and opinion collision through the Internet. With the development of the Internet, the main body of public opinion is no longer limited to the traditional mainstream media, but covers all kinds of social media, aggregation platforms, search engines, as well as the channels and platforms that generate and spread public opinion, such as the two micro ends.
        The proposal of "four all media" points out the direction for the development of China's mainstream media and predicts the future situation of news and public opinion work. At present, the empowerment of new technologies has made many Internet business platforms become activists in the public opinion field. They have become the main public opinion platform with their huge user base and high user stickiness. For the mainstream media, channels and platforms are the positions of news and public opinion work. Without channels and platforms, it means that it is impossible to gather a large audience, which also hinders the exertion of the authority. Therefore, on the one hand, the mainstream media should actively build a new media matrix. In the face of emergencies and hot issues related to the vital interests of the people, the mainstream media and professional reports cannot be absent, and use a variety of new technical means to give full play to the leading role of mainstream public opinion; On the other hand, in order to reach a consensus and realize the guidance of public opinion for the majority of Internet users, in the public opinion field of pluralistic co governance, the mainstream media should actively seek cooperation with other public opinion subjects, and attract users' attention and sharing with the help of Tiktok, Kwai, Weibo, wechat and other platforms, so as to improve the communication effect.
        When the application of technology is more and more based on the consideration of capital and interests, it is more necessary for mankind to remain rational, always be alert and keep in mind that talent is the purpose, and technology meets the real needs of human survival and development, rather than the false needs driven by interests. The development and application of new technologies driven by capital and interests may not necessarily bring progress to human society, but also potential huge risks. Therefore, in order to ensure the healthy development of public opinion ecology, it is of far-reaching significance to strengthen the predictive management of the impact of new technology on the public opinion field. Actively adapt to the new pattern of communication and consolidate the voice of mainstream media. The results of the 19th national reading survey released by the China Academy of press and publication show that the exposure rate of digital reading methods (including online reading, mobile reading, e-reader and pad reading) of adult citizens in China is 79.6%, and the exposure rate of digital reading methods of teenagers aged 14-17 also reaches 74.8%.
        This shows that the way people receive information has changed significantly. At present, some groups pay less attention to the mainstream media, and most of the information is obtained from the Internet. We must face up to this fact, increase resources and energy investment, and regain the dominance of this public opinion position. Therefore, from the perspective of top-level design, the basic logic of mainstream media is to actively adapt to the new pattern of communication, actively build a public opinion position with the help of various technical means, lead the direction of public opinion with Marxist Journalism, and let the socialist core values play a leading role in the field of public opinion. On the one hand, new technology is combined with traditional means of communication to realize the "cross media interaction" shift, expand the scale of the audience, improve the viscosity between the media and the audience, and establish and maintain an effective connection between the media and the audience for a long time; On the other hand, organize content production around users' needs, emotions and cognition, enhance the participation of mainstream media in social governance, and enhance the communication and guidance of news and public opinion work with empathy and emotional resonance, so as to consolidate the discourse power of mainstream media.
        Regulate the application of new technologies from the perspective of laws and regulations. At present, the main body of public opinion is in a diversified state, which requires relevant institutions to change their concepts and extend their role positioning from a simple "media manager" to a "rule maker". mutually
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