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This article explains the Internet of things and big data, cloud computing, industrial Internet of things, blockchain!

Time : 13/02/2022 Author : 91njgx Click : + -
        This article describes the relationship and applications among the Internet of things, big data and cloud computing. Industrial Internet of things and blockchain are also introduced. Internetofthings (IOT) refers to the real-time acquisition of any object or process that needs to be monitored, connected, and interacted through various devices and technologies such as information sensors, radio frequency identification technology, global positioning system, infrared sensors, laser scanners, etc., and the acquisition of its sound, light, heat, electricity, mechanics, chemistry, biology, location and other required information, so as to realize object to object The ubiquitous connection between things and people realizes the intelligent perception, recognition and management of things and processes.
        The Internet of things is an information carrier based on the Internet and traditional telecommunication networks. It allows all ordinary physical objects that can be independently addressed to form an interconnected network. The basic characteristics of the Internet of things from the perspective of communication objects and processes, the information interaction between things, people and things is the core of the Internet of things. The basic characteristics of the Internet of things can be summarized as overall perception, reliable transmission and intelligent processing. Intelligent processing — Various intelligent technologies are used to analyze and process the perceived and transmitted data and information, so as to realize the intellectualization of monitoring and control. (1) The function of obtaining information. It mainly refers to the perception and recognition of information, which refers to the perception and sensitivity to the attribute state and its change mode of things; Information recognition refers to the ability to express the state of things in a certain way.
        (2) The function of transmitting information. It is mainly the task of sending, transmitting and receiving information, and finally transmitting the obtained state information of things and the way of its change from one point in time (or space) to another, which is often referred to as the communication process. (3) The function of processing information. It refers to the process of information processing, using existing information or perceived information to produce new information, which is actually the process of making decisions. (4) Function of application information. It refers to the process in which information finally plays its role. There are many forms of expression. The more important is to always keep the object in a pre-designed state by adjusting the state of the object and its transformation mode.
        Radiofrequencyidentification (RFID for short). RFID is a simple wireless system, which consists of an interrogator (or reader) and many responders (or tags). Tags are composed of coupling elements and chips. Each tag has a unique electronic code for expanding entries, which is attached to the object to identify the target object. It transmits RF information to the reader through the antenna. The reader is the device that reads information. RFID technology enables objects to "speak" sensor networks. MEMS is the English abbreviation of micro electro mechanical systems.
        It is an integrated micro device system composed of micro sensors, micro actuators, signal processing and control circuits, communication interfaces and power supplies. Its goal is to integrate the acquisition, processing and execution of information, form a multifunctional micro system, and integrate it into a large-scale system, so as to greatly improve the automation, intelligence and reliability of the system. M2M is the abbreviation of machine to machine / man. It is a networked application and service centered on the intelligent interaction of machine terminals. It will make the object realize intelligent control. M2M technology involves five important technical parts: machine, M2M hardware, communication network, middleware and application.
        Based on cloud computing platform and intelligent network, decisions can be made according to the data obtained by sensor networks, and the behavior of objects can be changed for control and feedback. The application fields of the Internet of things involve all aspects. The applications in the infrastructure fields such as industry, agriculture, environment, transportation, logistics, security and so on have effectively promoted the intelligent development of these aspects, making the limited resources more reasonable use and distribution, thus improving the industrial efficiency and benefits. The application in home furnishing, health care, education, finance and service industry, tourism and other fields closely related to life has made great improvements in terms of service scope, service mode and service quality, which has greatly improved people's quality of life.
        The standard of traditional Internet is not suitable for the Internet of things. The data of the perception layer of the Internet of things is multi-source and heterogeneous, and different devices have different interfaces and different technical standards; The network layer and application layer also have different network protocols and architectures due to different network types and different application directions of industries. The establishment of a unified Internet of things architecture and unified technical standards is a problem that the Internet of things is facing. All countries actively support the Internet of things. Behind the seemingly blooming flowers, there are few Internet of things projects that can be truly invested and used on a large scale. For example, the cost price of the most basic electronic tags and card readers that realize RFID technology has been unable to meet the expectations of enterprises, and the cost performance ratio is not high; Sensor network is a multi hop self-organizing network, which is easily damaged by environmental factors or human factors. In order to ensure the smoothness of the network and the real-time safe transmission of reliable information, the maintenance cost of the network is high.
        The Internet of things itself is a complex network system, and the application fields are all over all walks of life, so there is inevitably a lot of intersection. If this network system does not have a special comprehensive platform to classify and manage information, there will be a lot of information redundancy, repeated work, repeated construction, resulting in a waste of resources. The application of each industry is independent, with high cost and low efficiency. It does not reflect the advantages of the Internet of things, which is bound to affect the promotion of the Internet of things. The Internet of things urgently needs a unified management platform that can integrate the resources of various industries, so that it can form a complete industrial chain model. The traditional Internet is mature and widely used, and there are still security vulnerabilities.
        As an emerging product, the Internet of things has a more complex architecture, no unified standards, and all aspects of security issues are more prominent. The key implementation technology is the sensor network. In the natural environment where the sensors are exposed, especially some sensors placed in harsh environments, how to maintain the integrity of the network for a long time puts forward new requirements for the sensor technology. The sensor network must have the function of self-healing. This is not only affected by environmental factors, but also by human factors. RFID is another key implementation technology, which is to put electronic tags into items in advance to achieve real-time monitoring, which is bound to cause some personal privacy exposure for some owners of tagged items, and there are problems in the security of personal information.
        Not only personal information security, but now cooperation between enterprises and countries is quite common. Once the network is attacked, the consequences will be even more unimaginable. How to balance informatization and security in the process of using the Internet of things is very important. Big data (bigdata) refers to the product of real data aggregation with many kinds, large flow, large capacity, high value and fast processing and analysis speed. Big data, or massive data or massive data resources, refers to the huge amount of data involved, which is too large to be retrieved, managed, processed, and sorted into information to help enterprises make better business decisions in a reasonable time through the current mainstream software tools.
        Cloud computing provides scalable and cheap distributed computing capabilities through the network. Users can obtain all kinds of IT resources anytime and anywhere as long as they have network access conditions. Cloud computing data center is a set of complex facilities, including blade servers, broadband network connections, environmental control equipment, monitoring equipment and various security devices. Data center is an important carrier of cloud computing, providing computing, storage, bandwidth and other hardware resources for cloud computing, and providing a running support environment for various platforms and applications. Public security management, disaster recovery and backup, urban management, emergency management, intelligent transportation, social security and other applications can be deployed on the government cloud. Through intensive construction, management and operation, information resource integration and government resource sharing can be realized, government management innovation can be promoted, and the transformation to a service-oriented government can be accelerated.
        Education cloud can effectively integrate high-quality educational resources such as early childhood education, primary and secondary education, higher education and continuing education, and gradually achieve the goals of educational information sharing, educational resource sharing and deep mining of educational resources. Small and medium-sized enterprise cloud can enable enterprises to establish management application systems such as finance, supply chain and customer relationship at a low cost, greatly reduce the threshold of enterprise informatization, rapidly improve the level of enterprise informatization, and enhance the market competitiveness of enterprises. Medical cloud can promote the service sharing between hospitals, hospitals and communities, hospitals and emergency centers, hospitals and families, and form a new set of medical and health service system, so as to effectively improve the quality of medical care.
        As a strategic emerging industry, the cloud computing industry has developed rapidly in recent years and formed a mature industrial chain structure. The industry covers hardware and equipment manufacturing, infrastructure operation, software and solution providers, infrastructure as a service (IAAs), platform as a service (PAAS), software as a service (SaaS), terminal equipment, cloud security, cloud computing delivery / consulting / certification and other links. In the context of industrie4.0 or "industrial Internet", the industrial Internet of things has become a part of the central stage of digital transformation (iiot). Data is the key asset and means of production in related products, and it is an essential function in the application analysis of globally connected products (in the whole life cycle).
        The industrial Internet of things is the largest and most important component of the Internet of things. Although from the perspective of expenditure, consumer applications are now the largest application field of the Internet of things, and the application of the industrial Internet of things mainly began in 2018. Nevertheless, the industrial Internet of things is still becoming more important and advanced in the application landscape of the whole Internet of things. Industrial Internet of things refers to the application of Internet of things in industry. Industrial Internet covers the industrial Internet of things, but it further extends to enterprise information systems, business processes and personnel. Industrial Internet has two meanings. One is to realize the interconnection between industrial equipment (production equipment, logistics equipment, energy measurement, quality inspection, vehicles, etc.), information systems, business processes, enterprise products and services, and personnel within the enterprise, realize the interconnection between enterprise IT network and industrial control network, and realize the vertical interconnection from workshop to decision-making level.
        The second is to realize the horizontal interconnection between upstream and downstream enterprises (suppliers, dealers, customers, partners); From the dimension of product life cycle, we should realize the interconnection of the whole life cycle of products from design, manufacturing to service, and then to scrap recycling and reuse. In the future, industrial Internet will pay more attention to design, R & D, manufacturing, marketing and services, and improve the efficiency of the entire industrial system and operation through full integration. The most important thing of industrial Internet is to realize the digitalization of enterprise information. At present, the Internet of things technology has been applied in the fields of product informatization, production and manufacturing links, business management links, energy conservation and emission reduction, safety production and so on.
        Product informatization refers to the process of materializing information technology in products to improve the content of information technology in products. The purpose of promoting product informatization is to enhance the performance and functions of products, improve the added value of products, and promote product upgrading. At present, the automotive, home appliances, construction machinery, shipbuilding and other industries have improved the intelligent level of products through the application of Internet of things technology. In the construction machinery industry, XCMG group and Sany Heavy Industry have applied the Internet of things technology in construction machinery products. Through the real-time monitoring and intelligent analysis platform of construction machinery operating parameters, the customer service center can correct customers' irregular operations through telephone, SMS, etc., remind necessary maintenance, and prevent failures.
        The application of Internet of things technology in production line process detection, real-time parameter acquisition, production equipment and product monitoring and management, material consumption monitoring, etc., can greatly improve the intelligent level of production. In the iron and steel industry, using Internet of things technology, enterprises can monitor the width, thickness, temperature and other parameters of processed products in real time during the production process, improve product quality and optimize the production process. In terms of supply chain management, Internet of things technology is mainly used in transportation, warehousing and other logistics management fields. Applying Internet of things technology to vehicle monitoring, three-dimensional warehouses, etc., can significantly improve the efficiency of industrial logistics and reduce inventory costs. In the textile, food and beverage, chemical and other process industries, the Internet of things technology has been applied in the field of production workshop and production equipment management.
        For example, Wuxi Yimian has developed and established a network online monitoring system, which can monitor 168 parameters in 9 categories, such as output, quality and mechanical status. Through docking with the enterprise ERP system, it has realized the integration of management and control and quality traceability, and improved the level of production management and product quality. In addition, it can also timely and accurately find the abnormal conditions of a certain machine (an eye, an ingot), and guide the maintenance personnel to work with a targeted goal. Internet of things technology has been applied in "high energy consumption and high pollution" industries such as steel, non-ferrous metals, electric power, chemical industry, textile, papermaking, etc., effectively promoting energy conservation and emission reduction in these industries. The development of smart grid will promote energy conservation in the power industry.
        Jiangxi Power Grid Corporation installed sensing devices on 20000 distribution transformers distributed throughout the province to monitor the operation status in real time, realizing efficient integrated management such as power consumption inspection, power quality monitoring, load management, line loss management, demand side management, and reducing power loss by 120million kwh in one year. Using the Internet of things technology to establish an automatic monitoring system for pollution sources can monitor the key indicators such as cod discharged in the process of industrial production in real time, and provide a basis for optimizing the technological process. The Internet of things has become an important technical means to ensure safe production in coal, steel, nonferrous metals and other industries. Through the establishment of an integrated information system for underground human, machine and environment monitoring, dispatching and command based on the Internet of things technology, the status monitoring and fault diagnosis of key production equipment such as mining, hoisting, transportation, ventilation, drainage, power supply, etc. can be carried out, and the temperature, humidity, vas concentration, etc. can be monitored.
        Once the sensor detects that the gas concentration exceeds the standard, it will automatically sound the alarm to remind relevant personnel to take effective measures as soon as possible to reduce the occurrence of gas explosion and water seepage accidents. Through the underground personnel positioning system, the underground operators can be located and tracked, and their identities can be identified, so that they can be rescued in time when a mine disaster occurs. Blockchain is a term in the field of information technology. In essence, it is a shared database. The data or information stored in it has the characteristics of "unforgeability", "full trace", "traceability", "openness and transparency" and "collective maintenance". Based on these characteristics, blockchain technology has laid a solid "trust" foundation, created a reliable "cooperation" mechanism, and has broad application prospects.
        What is blockchain? From the perspective of science and technology, blockchain involves many scientific and technological issues such as mathematics, cryptography, Internet and computer programming. From the perspective of application, in short, blockchain is a distributed shared ledger and database, which has the characteristics of decentralization, tamper proof, whole process trace, traceability, collective maintenance, openness and transparency. These characteristics ensure the "honesty" and "transparency" of the blockchain and lay the foundation for the creation of trust in the blockchain. The rich application scenarios of blockchain are basically based on the fact that blockchain can solve the problem of information asymmetry and achieve collaborative trust and concerted action among multiple subjects. Blockchain is a new application mode of computer technology, such as distributed data storage, point-to-point transmission, consensus mechanism, encryption algorithm, etc.
        Blockchain is an important part of bitcoin
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