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Compliant issuance of Digital Collections

Time : 12/06/2022 Author : xsuob1 Click : + -
        ”With the successful operation of overseas projects, digital collections have gradually attracted social attention and quickly become popular on the Internet. In 2021, digital collections developed rapidly in China. As of May this year, there were more than 330 domestic digital collection platforms, and a large number of museums and performing arts groups, as copyright owners, also distributed their own digital collections on major platforms. The report predicts that China's digital collection trading market will reach 50 to 80 billion yuan in 2-3 years. Behind the rapid development of digital collections, the copyright protection of original works is a problem that can not be ignored. If we do not pay attention to it, it is very easy to breed infringement. On April 20, 2022, the Hangzhou Internet court heard a dispute case about a technology company's infringement of the right to network dissemination of works information in accordance with the law and pronounced a judgment in court. This case is the first case that China's digital collection infringement disputes have been concluded and publicly adjudicated.
        See "the magic weapon behind the first case of NFT rights protection in China turns out to be it!"!. The clarification and improvement of laws and regulations can indeed restrain the infringement of digital collections, but it is more an ex post restraint. The regulatory sandbox for the field of financial technology is a pre restraint mechanism, which can prevent infringement to a certain extent. However, neither of them can be restrained in the event of infringement. In order to avoid the recurrence of the above illegal cases, a penetrating dynamic constraint scheme has become the meaning of the topic. We envisage building a national digital collection main chain, which is positioned to restrict the potential infringement distribution of national digital collection platforms (hereinafter referred to as "digital collection sub chain").
        Based on this positioning, on the one hand, the main chain of digital collections can synchronize the data of the sub chain of digital collections for "data audit", on the other hand, the main chain can be used as a copyright confirmation chain, which can play a "dynamic constraint" role on the distribution of digital collections authorized by the authors of digital collections without the authorization of the original authors of copyright works. First of all, it is envisaged to give the main chain of digital collections the ability to build light nodes on the chain. Light nodes on the chain are similar to the clients of blockchain nodes. By connecting sub chain nodes to synchronize their block header data, the purpose of obtaining audit data is achieved. In view of the shortcomings of the above scheme, we envisage that the blockchain service platform will uniformly deploy the supervision nodes of heterogeneous chains, add the digital collection sub chain, and synchronize the data for audit.
        Heterogeneous multi chain is the basic pattern of industrial blockchain. The efficient docking of heterogeneous chains is the basic capability of blockchain service platform. Due to the deployment of all nodes, the node data of digital collection sub chain can be synchronized in full amount (block header + block body), and the audit data is complete. Then, how to conduct audit analysis after obtaining the data on the chain? Blockchain generally stores the generated state data in the form of key value pairs, which poses an obstacle to the structural analysis required for data audit. The blockchain service platform can integrate professional structured analysis, statistics and analysis platforms of on-chain data, greatly reducing the audit threshold of on-chain data. However, when the infringement occurs in the above scheme, the supervisor, as the main chain of digital collections, can only audit the data on the chain containing illegal contents, and cannot intervene. In essence, it is also a kind of afterwards constraint.
        How to achieve truly penetrating dynamic constraints? Imagine a scenario. In order to help the digital collection platform party better fulfill its duty of care in advance, it is required that the issuer should pass the audit before issuing the digital collection in the sub chain. The platform party confirms that the ownership or authorization relationship of the digital collection is legal from the digital collection main chain, and then agrees to issue it, so as to achieve dynamic constraints. We take the confirmation of the legitimacy of the authorization relationship as an example to illustrate how the digital collection publisher can prove to the platform that the digital collection to be distributed is authorized by the author of the original work. As can be seen from the above figure, the authorization and verification of original works are mainly completed through verifiable statements.
        Verifiable statement is the concept of distributed digital identity (the unique identity on the blockchain, in this example, we assume that users have completed the registration of distributed digital identity on the main chain and sub chain respectively). It is a kind of digital certificate, which is a descriptive statement issued by a digital identity endorsing some attributes of another digital identity, and attaching its own digital signature to prove the authenticity of these attributes. In this example, the verifiable statement is issued by the author of the original work to the publisher of the digital collection. The specific contents are as follows:. It can be seen that the issuer in claiminfo is the author of the original work, the value of the issuer is the address of its digital identity account registered on the main chain, the holder in the subject is the publisher of the digital collection, and the value of the holder is the address of its digital identity account registered in the sub chain. The subject contains an attribute (attribute1) field. In this example, the attribute can be the unique identification of the original work, such as work name, work hash Digital fingerprints of works, etc.
        Signature is that the author of the original work uses his own private key to claiminfo& The digital signature result of the subject. After receiving the verifiable statement submitted by the digital collection publisher, the digital collection platform can query the issuer's public key from the digital collection main chain, and use the public key to complete the verification of the verifiable statement. If the verification passes, it is proved that the verifiable statement is indeed signed and issued by the original author of the creation, so as to complete the confirmation of the work authorization relationship and release the digital collection distribution. However, it is not difficult to find that in this process, there is still a loophole of manual audit in the confirmation of the authorization relationship. If the digital collection platform and the publisher are in collusion, the infringement can not be avoided (the case announced by the Hangzhou Internet court is due to the failure of the digital collection platform to perform a higher duty of care in advance).
        In order to completely solve this problem, we have introduced cross chain capability into the scheme to endow the main and sub chains with interoperability. When the digital collection publisher submits the verifiable declaration, the verification process of the verifiable declaration will be automatically triggered to realize the automatic confirmation of the authorization relationship. The specific process is as follows:. As shown in the above figure, the verification logic of verifiable statements (public key query, digital signature verification, etc.) is realized by the smart contract of the digital collection main chain, and the interaction between the digital collection sub chain and the digital collection main chain is uniformly relayed by a relay chain. After the digital collection publisher submits the verifiable declaration, the cross chain trigger of the main chain smart contract is realized through the relay chain relay to complete the verification of the verifiable declaration.
        Cross chain interoperable transactions are unified in the relay chain, and certificates are deposited on the chain, which is convenient for joint transparent audit of cross chain parties. The above process is completed automatically, and the relay chain, cross chain gateway and cross chain contract are deployed and controlled by the supervisor. The digital collection platform does not need and cannot intervene, and the digital collection publisher can obtain the feedback on whether to authorize the issuance of digital collections in real time. The dynamic regulatory constraints of authorized issuance of digital collections have been truly realized. The assumption is very beautiful, but from the assumption to the reality, the dynamic constraints of digital collection distribution based on blockchain will encounter layers of obstacles in the actual implementation process. As for the data audit mentioned above, we mentioned that heterogeneous chain nodes can be deployed through the blockchain service platform to achieve efficient structured audit of data on the chain.
        For the above-mentioned dynamic constraint landing problem, it can also be solved in a package based on the blockchain service platform. The front desk of digital collection management and control has the ability to access the main chain and sub chain. The author of the original work can register the digital identity in the front desk, apply for the confirmation of the original work and issue the verifiable statement. The publisher of the digital collection can register the digital identity in the front desk, submit the verifiable statement and issue the digital collection after authorization and verification. At the blockchain level, the background of digital collection management and control has the ability to control the underlying blockchain (main chain, sub chain, relay chain, etc.), and provides general capabilities to meet the scenarios of operation, operation and maintenance, development and audit, paving the way and clearing the obstacles for regulators to implement the blockchain based digital collection supervision scheme nationwide.
        The digital collection control background mentioned above is the blockchain service platform. With the steady and in-depth advancement of industrial blockchain, the urban blockchain infrastructure led by the government is becoming a key link in the new infrastructure. If the local government takes the lead in building the main chain of supervision and takes the industry chain of each commission and office as the business sub chain, we find that the dynamic constraint scheme of digital collections based on blockchain introduced in the text is also applicable to the construction and implementation of urban blockchain infrastructure, and also requires the deep empowerment of the blockchain service platform as a unified management and control platform. Some people believe that compliance constraints are a double-edged sword. Too weak may cause the brutal growth of industries, and too strong may strangle emerging industries in the cradle and curb innovation.
        The subtext of the double-edged sword metaphor is to treat compliance constraints as the opposite of industrial development. As a new infrastructure of the future value Internet, the development of industrial blockchain is of self-evident strategic significance to the country. To develop, it is more necessary to achieve sustainable and benign development. Compliance constraint itself is not the object that should be criticized or the obstacle of industrial development, but the problems that should be constrained. If there is no constraint, the development process of industrial blockchain will be swallowed up by the problems caused by it. The author believes that the compliance constraints of industrial blockchain should be integrated into the top-level design at the early stage of the industry, which is also a key factor for the sustainable and benign development of the industry. The compliance issuance solution of digital collections based on the main sub chain architecture is the best example of deeply integrating compliance into the industry, which can realize the dynamic balance between industrial development and compliance, and guide the industry to continue to develop well.
        In view of the many pain points in the implementation of this solution, blockface, a blockchain service platform of interest chain, can provide one-stop blockchain service capabilities, enabling industrial control entities and local governments to build industrial and urban blockchain infrastructure more efficiently and perfectly.
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