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Looking for the voice of youth ⑦ Yang Guang: dance the dance of cryptography on the stage of blockchain

Time : 18/05/2022 Author : w9ql84 Click : + -
        In February this year, Shanghai Shutu blockchain Research Institute released its public chain &mdash& mdash; Confux tree public chain system version 1.0. This version handles about 40000 transactions per day on average, without transaction congestion. Its speed is 428 times that of the existing public chain bitcoin system and 75 times that of Ethereum system!. The key to "speed up" is that the structure of the public chain is generally "graph" rather than "chain" according to the name of the tree graph. It is Yang Guang, the research director of the Institute, who theoretically proves that the graph structure is feasible. Together with Dean long fan and chief technology officer Wu Ming, he is known as the "tree figure three swordsman".
        Yang Guang, who loves mathematics and cryptography, feels that he has caught up with the good era when the country attaches importance to basic scientific research. He will solve more interested computer theoretical problems and use this to break through and develop more upper tier applications. What is blockchain? This is probably the fastest-growing technology in human history. In essence, it is a decentralized distributed ledger database, which itself is a series of data blocks associated with cryptography technology. Each data block contains the information of multiple network transactions. After the rise of blockchains represented by bitcoin and Ethereum, "blocks must be connected in a chain" has become a mindset. For this reason, people have to endure the "cost" of slow speed.
        Yang Guang, for example, said that since the birth of bitcoin more than a decade ago, the interval between the two blocks has been maintained at about 10 minutes, which is unimaginable in the field of electronic information developed according to Moore's law. Why is it so slow? Because in the chain structure, in order to avoid chain bifurcation caused by blocks at the same time, when a block appears, it is necessary to ensure that the block is "broadcast" to the whole network before a block can be safely generated. "This leads to almost all nodes in the network broadcasting the same information at the same time, which greatly reduces the propagation efficiency." Yang Guang said. Some people have also proposed the graph structure, but it is difficult to prove it in theory or practice, which leads to no one going through this route before the tree diagram.
        After confirming that the graphical structure is the inevitable trend of technological development, Yang Guang and Dr. Li Chenxing of the Institute of cross information of Tsinghua University spent more than a year proving that the graphical structure is safe and feasible in theory, while long fan, Wu Ming and others made the graphical public chain in the level of practical operation. Version 1.0 of the tree public chain realizes the throughput of processing more than 3000 transactions per second, and compresses the transaction confirmation time to less than 30 seconds. The use experience is close to the traditional centralized system, which is enough to carry large-scale blockchain applications. According to the existing rules, the data on the blockchain needs to be backed up on every node in the network, which also greatly increases the system redundancy. At present, there is no good solution.
        Whether each node can store only part of the data, while other nodes only need to verify when using these data, Yang Guangzheng is striving for this goal. Not long ago, Shanghai Shutu blockchain Research Institute was designated by IEEE as the chairman of the international standard working group of "blockchain system application interface specification", leading the formulation of the standard, indicating that China's international voice and rule making power have emerged in the blockchain field. Yang Guang is also one of those who participated in the formulation of standards. The standard will define and standardize the interface between the blockchain layer and the application layer of the blockchain system, and clarify the technical requirements in terms of intrusion protection, malicious code protection, program trusted execution, data integrity, data confidentiality, access control, security policies, management systems, etc.
        In the practice of blockchain industry, a common demand is to transplant the applications developed on one blockchain to another blockchain with different structures. The unified interface standard is equivalent to unifying the "steering wheel, accelerator and brake" of blockchain, which will effectively accelerate the landing of new scenarios. Theoretical innovation is the source of disruptive innovation "from 0 to 1". As a practitioner in the field of theoretical computer, Yang Guang truly feels the strength of the country's emphasis on basic research. "In the past, units would compare the number and impact factors of reissued papers, but the difficulty of publishing papers in different fields is different, especially in basic research. Sometimes a weighty article will be published for several years, which requires scientific consideration by units.
        ”He said, "however, with the implementation of the system of ‘ breaking the four evils ’ and ‘ representative works ’, the problem of ‘ weight over quality ’ has become much better.". Yang Guang believes that innovation comes from exploring the unknown, and the result must be uncertain in advance, so disruptive innovation cannot be produced from scientific research with "clear expectations". In terms of evaluation mechanism, we certainly hope that every input will be rewarded, and the number of papers and patents produced, and the economic benefits of technology transfer and achievement transformation are also objective indicators that are relatively easy to be quantitatively assessed.
        However, such an evaluation method is more suitable for the engineering field, which does not conform to the objective law of innovation, and it is difficult to measure the value of basic research. Yang Guang, for example, said that the bitcoin white paper written by Nakamoto Cong in 2008 created the whole blockchain field, and its value is difficult to measure with the existing scientific research achievement evaluation system. In fact, it has also experienced the test of time for many years before it is gradually recognized. He is very optimistic about the future: the country attaches great importance to innovation and basic research, is breaking through the obstacles restricting scientific and technological innovation through the reform of the scientific and technological system, and is striving to build China into a major scientific center and innovation highland in the world. Many new R & D institutions, including Shanghai Shutu blockchain Research Institute, are experimental fields for the reform of the scientific and technological system.
        These new R & D institutions can give researchers a more relaxed research environment and flexible and diverse assessment methods, so that they can do valuable research based on their interests. "Blockchain is not only a kind of technological innovation, but also carries our ideals and beliefs. Technology will become obsolete one day, but we have come, and the world will become a better place." This is Yang Guang's research "initial intention".
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