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Knowledge Popularization: about blockchain

Time : 28/01/2022 Author : t0jeb2 Click : + -
        Blockchain is a chain composed of blocks one after another. Certain information is stored in each block, and they are connected into a chain according to their respective time sequence. This chain is stored in all servers. As long as one server in the whole system can work, the whole blockchain is safe. These servers are called nodes in the blockchain system, and they provide storage space and computing power support for the whole blockchain system. If you want to modify the information in the blockchain, you must obtain the consent of more than half of the nodes and modify the information in all nodes, and these nodes are usually in the hands of different subjects, so it is extremely difficult to tamper with the information in the blockchain.
        Compared with traditional networks, blockchain has two core characteristics: difficult to tamper with data and decentralization. Based on these two characteristics, the information recorded by blockchain is more authentic and reliable, which can help solve the problem of mutual distrust. Blockchain originated from bitcoin. On November 1st, 2008, a person calling himself satoshinakamoto published the article "bitcoin: a peer-to-peer e-cash system", which expounds the architecture concept of e-cash system based on P2P network technology, encryption technology, timestamp technology, blockchain technology, etc., marking the birth of bitcoin. Two months later, the theory came into practice, and the first Genesis block with serial number 0 was born on January 3, 2009.
        A few days later, on January 9, 2009, a block with serial number 1 appeared, and it was connected with the genesis block with serial number 0 to form a chain, marking the birth of the blockchain. In 2008, Nakamoto first proposed the concept of blockchain. In the following years, blockchain became the core component of bitcoin, an electronic currency: as a public account book for all transactions. By using point-to-point networks and distributed timestamp servers, blockchain databases can be managed autonomously. The blockchain invented for bitcoin makes it the first digital currency to solve the problem of repeated consumption. The design of bitcoin has become a source of inspiration for other applications.
        In 2014, "blockchain 2.0" became a term for decentralized blockchain databases. For this second-generation programmable blockchain, economists believe that it is a programming language that allows users to write more precise and intelligent protocols. Therefore, when the profit reaches a certain level, you can get income from the dividends of completed freight orders or shared certificates. Blockchain 2.0 technology bypasses transactions and "acting as an intermediary for money and information arbitration in value exchange". They are used to keep people away from the globalized economy, protect privacy, enable people to "convert the information they have into money", and have the ability to ensure that the owners of intellectual property get benefits.
        The second generation blockchain technology makes it possible to store personal "permanent Digital IDs and images" and provides solutions to "potential social wealth distribution" inequalities. On January 10, 2019, the state Internet Information Office issued the regulations on the management of blockchain information services. On October 24, 2019, at the 18th collective learning of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, General Secretary Xi emphasized that "take blockchain as an important breakthrough for independent innovation of core technology" and "accelerate the development of blockchain technology and industrial innovation". "Blockchain" has entered the public's vision and become the focus of social attention. On December 2, 2019, this word was selected as one of the top ten buzzwords in 2019 of biting words.
        In 2021, the state attached great importance to the development of the blockchain industry, and more than 60 policies related to blockchain were issued by various ministries and commissions. Blockchain was not only written into the outline of the 14th five year plan, but also actively explored the development direction of blockchain, comprehensively promoted the development of blockchain Technology in all fields, actively issued relevant policies, emphasized the combination of various fields with blockchain technology, and accelerated the innovation and development of blockchain technology and industry, The policy environment of blockchain industry continues to develop favorably. Decentralization. Blockchain technology does not rely on additional third-party management institutions or hardware facilities, and there is no central control. In addition to the self-contained blockchain itself, through distributed accounting and storage, each node realizes information self verification, transmission and management.
        Decentralization is the most prominent and essential feature of blockchain. Openness. The foundation of blockchain technology is open source. Except that the private information of all parties to the transaction is encrypted, the data of blockchain is open to everyone. Anyone can query blockchain data and develop related applications through public interfaces. Therefore, the information of the whole system is highly transparent. Independence. Based on the agreed specifications and Protocols (similar to various mathematical algorithms such as the hash algorithm adopted by bitcoin), the whole blockchain system does not rely on other third parties, and all nodes can automatically and safely verify and exchange data in the system without any human intervention. Security. As long as 51% of all data nodes cannot be controlled, the network data cannot be arbitrarily controlled and modified, which makes the blockchain itself relatively safe and avoids subjective and artificial data changes.
        Anonymity. Unless required by laws and regulations, technically speaking, the identity information of each block node does not need to be disclosed or verified, and the information transmission can be anonymous. Among them, the data layer encapsulates the underlying data blocks and related basic data and algorithms such as data encryption and timestamp; The network layer includes distributed networking mechanism, data transmission mechanism and data verification mechanism; The consensus layer mainly encapsulates all kinds of consensus algorithms of network nodes; The incentive layer integrates economic factors into the blockchain technology system, mainly including the issuance mechanism and distribution mechanism of economic incentives; The contract layer mainly encapsulates various scripts, algorithms and smart contracts, which is the basis of the programmable characteristics of blockchain; The application layer encapsulates various application scenarios and cases of blockchain.
        In this model, the chain block structure based on timestamp, the consensus mechanism of distributed nodes, economic incentives based on consensus computing power and flexible programmable smart contracts are the most representative innovations of blockchain technology. Blockchain has great potential application value in financial fields such as international exchange, letters of credit, equity registration and stock exchanges. The application of blockchain technology in the financial industry can eliminate the third-party intermediary link and realize the direct connection of point-to-point, so as to greatly reduce costs and quickly complete transaction payment. From the perspective of practical progress, most of the applications of blockchain technology in commercial banks are still being conceived and tested, and there is still a long way to go before they can be used in life and production. There are also many difficulties in obtaining the recognition of regulatory authorities and the market, mainly:.
        (1) Restricted by current concepts, systems and laws. The characteristics of decentralized, self-management and collective maintenance of blockchain have subverted people's way of production and life, diluted the concept of state and regulation, and impacted the current legal arrangements. For these, the whole world is completely lack of theoretical preparation and institutional discussion. Even bitcoin, the most mature blockchain application, holds different attitudes in different countries, which inevitably hinders the application and development of blockchain technology. There is obviously a long way to go to solve such problems. (2) At the technical level, blockchain still needs breakthroughs. Blockchain applications are still in the initial development stage in the laboratory, and there are no intuitive and available mature products.
        Compared with Internet technology, people can use specific applications such as browsers and apps to browse, transmit, exchange and apply information, but blockchain obviously lacks such breakthrough applications and faces high-tech barriers. Another example is the problem of block capacity. Because the blockchain needs to carry all the information generated before replication, the amount of information in the next block is greater than that in the previous block. In this way, the block write information will increase infinitely, and the resulting information storage, verification and capacity problems need to be solved. (3) Competitive technical challenges. Although many people are optimistic about blockchain technology, we should also see that there are many kinds of technologies that promote human development. Which technology is more convenient and efficient, people will apply it.
        For example, if blockchain technology is applied in the communication field, the information is sent to everyone in the whole network every time, but only the person with the private key can decrypt and open the letter, so the security of information transmission will be greatly increased. Similarly, quantum technology can also achieve quantum communication &mdash& mdash; Information transmission using quantum entanglement effect &mdash& mdash; It also has the characteristics of high efficiency and security, and has made great progress in recent years, which has a strong competitive advantage for blockchain technology.
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