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Six layer model of blockchain Technology

Time : 01/02/2022 Author : g4tvuc Click : + -
        1. Data layer /datalayer data layer mainly describes the most basic physical form of blockchain. It is a data structure of blockchain list, including: blockchain block data, hash function, Merkel number, asymmetric public-private key data encryption technology, timestamp technology, etc. it is the lowest data structure in the whole blockchain technology. These technologies did not appear with bitcoin, but had become the basis for building the global financial system in the decades before the birth of bitcoin. Nakamoto just "stood on the shoulders of giants" and cleverly combined these technologies through data blocks and chain structures.
        2. Network layer /networklayer blockchain network is essentially a P2P (peer-to-peer) network. The resources and services in the network are scattered on all nodes, and the transmission of information and the implementation of services are carried out directly between nodes without the intervention of intermediate links or centralized servers. Each node not only receives information, but also generates information. The nodes synchronize information by maintaining a common blockchain. When a node creates a new block, it will notify other nodes in the form of broadcast. After receiving the information, other nodes will verify the block and create a new block on the basis of the block, so as to achieve the role of maintaining a bottom ledger in the whole network.
        Therefore, the network layer will involve the design of P2P networking mechanism, data transmission mechanism, data verification mechanism, etc., and these designs can affect the confirmation speed of block information. Therefore, the network layer is an important research direction on how to break through the bottleneck of blockchain technology scalability. In fact, P2P networking technology was not invented by Nakamoto. It has been applied in P2P download software such as BT long before the birth of bitcoin. 3. The consensus layer /consensuslayer consensus layer encapsulates the consensus algorithm and consensus mechanism, which can enable highly decentralized nodes to reach a consensus on the effectiveness of block data in a decentralized blockchain network. It is one of the core technologies of blockchain and the governance mechanism of blockchain community.
        Its main function is to decide who will keep accounts, and the way of keeping accounts affects the safety and reliability of the whole system. At present, there are at least dozens of consensus mechanism algorithms, including proof of workload (POW), proof of entitlement (POS), proof of entitlement authorization (dpos), proof of combustion, proof of importance, and so on. 4. Incentive layer /actuatorlayer incentive layer is the mining mechanism that we often talk about. It integrates economic factors into the blockchain technology system and designs a set of economic incentive models to encourage nodes to participate in the security verification of blockchain, including the issuance mechanism and distribution mechanism of economic incentives.
        The incentive layer mainly appears in the public chain, because the public chain must encourage several points involved in bookkeeping, and punish nodes that do not comply with the rules, so that the whole system can develop in the direction of a virtuous cycle. In the private chain, incentives are not necessary, because the nodes that participate in bookkeeping often complete the game outside the chain and require to participate in bookkeeping through coercion or voluntariness. 5. Contract layer /contractlayer contract layer mainly includes various scripts, codes, algorithm mechanisms and smart contracts, which is the basis of blockchain programmability. Embedding the code into the blockchain or token to realize a customizable smart contract, which can be automatically executed without going through a third party when certain constraints are met, is the foundation of blockchain decentralization and trust machine.
        In terms of contracts, the first generation blockchain is not perfect. For example, bitcoin itself only has the function of writing simple scripts, can only be traded, and cannot be used in other fields or other logical processing (of course, when junior high school, the definition of bitcoin is only a point-to-point payment system, and does not want bitcoin to become an operating system). The second generation blockchain represented by Ethereum greatly strengthens the programming language protocol, realizes Turing completion, and can theoretically realize the application of any function. If bitcoin is regarded as a global ledger, Ethereum can be regarded as a global computer. Anyone can upload and execute any application program, and the effective execution of the program can be guaranteed.
        6. Application layer /applicationlayer application layer is the display layer of blockchain, which encapsulates various application scenarios and cases of blockchain, similar to applications on computer operating systems, portals on Internet browsers, search engines, e-malls or apps on mobile phones. For example, various blockchain applications (gambling, guessing, games) currently built on public chains such as eth, EOS, Neo, etc. The future programmable finance and programmable society will also be built on the application layer. Summary 1. Data layer, network layer and consensus layer are the necessary elements to build blockchain technology. Without any layer, it cannot be called blockchain technology in the true sense.
        2. Incentive layer, contract layer and application layer are not necessary factors for every blockchain application, and some blockchain applications do not fully include these three-tier structures.
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