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Can you briefly explain blockchain technology?

Time : 03/05/2022 Author : sfdi0j Click : + -
        Since I came into contact with bitcoin for 13 years and tried to understand what the bottom layer of bitcoin is, I have been unable to explain what bitcoin and blockchain are in simple and popular language. Knowing the answer of so many account books, I believe 90% of people can't understand (at least I still don't understand it after reading it), and I can't understand why we should build such an account book system. The most direct and effective way to explain a thing is to associate it with the common in the real world. I suggest not to look at the answers that start with "decentralization", "distribution", "world ledger" and "Byzantine general's problem". They are not really trying to make people really understand blockchain, but talking about something on blockchain.
 
        For some special reasons, I was forced to rent a suitable house within 3 days, but it was the graduation season at that time, and the housing supply was particularly tight, so it was difficult to find a suitable house. As a last resort, I contacted about sevenoreight intermediaries and asked them to find me a house at the same time. As we all know, when an intermediary rents a suite, they can get an intermediary fee of 50% of the rent. But I only need one house, so whoever finds the house for me first will get the intermediary fee. And I later learned a very magical thing. Although these intermediaries come from different platforms and companies, they use the same housing database in our region.
 
        In other words, all intermediaries have exactly the same housing information in their hands. It's just who can choose the one that makes me most satisfied first. (at that time, I also encountered the embarrassing situation that twoorthree intermediaries took me to see the same house). With the hard work of these agents, I found a satisfactory house the next day, and then I told other agents that I had rented it, so you don't have to look for it. Their reactions are actually very consistent: ah, this house? I've seen it before. I already have it. First of all, why should I find an intermediary to rent a house? Because I'm short of time, and I can't find so many houses for me to choose.
 
        The intermediary group has a large number of houses on hand, which can help me find a house. I only need to pay a part of the fee. This improves my efficiency and allows me to eat less snacks. Second, why do I not want to find only one intermediary, but seven or eight intermediaries? Because I don't believe that only an intermediary can help me find a suitable house in three days. That is, I don't trust a single or "centralized" service object. Just like shopping, everyone likes to shop around and choose the cheapest, which is the most simple idea of "decentralization". Third, why are intermediaries willing to help me find a house, even if they know that there are other intermediaries competing with them? Because it is profitable.
 
        Even if they know that there is peer competition, as long as they are confident or feel lucky, they can get an intermediary fee of several thousand yuan. Step 1: I (the lessee, the transaction initiator) broadcast to several Intermediaries: the first person who finds a house I am satisfied with can get the intermediary fee reward. Why did I spend so much time talking about my experience? Because this experience is a realistic portrayal of the logic behind bitcoin and even blockchain. Step 1: the participant said to the system: I want to launch a transaction, and the first person who can let me complete this transaction can get my handling fee reward. Step 2: the system receives the transaction request from the trading party, writes the request on a piece of paper, and then tells the miners (i.e. the intermediary) of the whole network: I need someone to confirm the information written on this paper. The person who first confirms the success can get the handling fee, and I will reward an additional 50 yuan.
 
        In this step, the confirmation method given by the system is to let the miner guess a number. If you guess it correctly, the confirmation is successful. Step 3: the miners received this message and began to guess the number one by one. After all, if they guessed right, there would be a handling charge and an additional 50 yuan, enough to go out and rub a meal. Step 4: the miners with the best luck guessed the number first and proudly showed it to other miners: look, I guessed it. Look at the useless spicy chicken. All other miners recognized the lucky miners when they saw that this figure was indeed correct. Then the lucky miner reported the number to the system. Step 5: the system saw that all other miners recognized the miner's number, so it completed the transaction, and then added this paper to the last page of the system ledger, and finally gave the reward to the miner.
 
        In this system, we can see that the role of miners and intermediaries are very similar. They charge a handling fee and an additional system reward of 50 yuan to help the system complete bookkeeping. Because the system itself cannot keep accounts, transactions must be recognized through mutual confirmation between miners. The difference from the rental scenario is that in the rental scenario, I can distinguish the good or bad of the house, while in the bitcoin scenario, the system cannot distinguish between right and wrong, and can only confirm the success of the transaction through mutual recognition between miners. But the core social division model of the two is consistent. Even if they don't trust each other, they can cooperate with each other to complete some social work and produce value.
 
        What is the biggest charm among them? Social checks and balances and incentive mechanisms. How can a system that is not maintained be stable? There is only one answer: with the help of a third party. But how can we rely on a third party? No one wants to work for nothing, right? Therefore, Nakamoto said that as long as they participate in the trading activities of maintaining bitcoin, participants can receive system rewards (several bitcoins). This maintenance was named "mining" by him. In fact, there is no cost for the system to issue new coins, but miners are happy, users are happy, and the system is used by more people. All three parties have benefits.
 
        This is the strength of the core social incentive mechanism. In my opinion, many people mentioned that "blockchain is a chain data structure that combines data blocks in chronological order", or "tamper proof and forgeable distributed ledger guaranteed by cryptography", which is not quite correct. In this scenario, I can design such a mechanism: user data authorization mining &mdash& mdash; That is, the user authorizes some of his data to be called by the outside world, and the system rewards the corresponding token after the call. Who will provide the corresponding call service? At this time, a social division role such as a super node can be introduced to complete the intermediary role.
 
        Companies that call user data (for example, for big data analysis) need to use token to call, because token is known by more people and the price rises &hellip& hellip; After a round of positive circulation, the final problem of privacy disclosure can be truly solved. The small book of the original residents of the whole ivva star is the distributed ledger database. Every Aboriginal is a node, and every transaction will be recorded by each node,. 1、 What is blockchain? "Blockchain" technology was originally a special database technology designed by a person with the pseudonym Nakamoto for bitcoin (a digital currency). It is based on the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) in cryptography to realize the decentralized P2P system design.
 
        However, the role of blockchain is not limited to bitcoin. Now, when people use the word "blockchain", sometimes it refers to data structure, sometimes it refers to database, and sometimes it refers to database technology, but no matter what the meaning, it has no inevitable connection with bitcoin. From the perspective of data: blockchain is a distributed database (or distributedsharedledger). Here, "distributed" is not only reflected in the distributed storage of data, but also in the distributed records of data (that is, it is collectively maintained by system participants). In short, blockchain can realize distributed recording of global data information (which can be collectively recorded by system participants rather than centrally recorded by a centralized organization) and distributed storage (which can be stored in all nodes involved in recording data, rather than centrally stored in centralized organization nodes).
 
        From the perspective of effect, blockchain can generate a set of time sequential, tamper proof and trusted database, which is decentralized storage and data security can be effectively guaranteed. Conclusion: blockchain is a data structure that combines blocks in a chain way. It is suitable for storing simple, sequential data that can be verified in the system. Cryptography ensures that the data cannot be tampered with and forged. It enables participants to establish a consensus on the sequence of events and current status of transaction records across the network. Today's blockchain technology can be summarized as a technology that collectively maintains a reliable database through the past centralization and de trust.
 
        In fact, blockchain technology is not a single and new technology, but the result of the integration of many existing technologies (such as encryption algorithm, P2P file transmission, etc.). These technologies are cleverly combined with databases to form a new way of data recording, transmission, storage and presentation. In short, blockchain technology is a technology in which everyone participates in recording and storing information. In the past, people entrusted the work of data recording and storage to centralized institutions, while blockchain technology allowed everyone in the system to participate in data recording and storage. Blockchain technology uses the method of distributed collective operation to build a P2P self-organizing network in a distributed peer-to-peer network without a central control point.
 
        Through the complex verification mechanism, the blockchain database can maintain integrity, continuity and consistency. Even if some participants cheat, they cannot change the integrity of the blockchain, let alone tamper with the data in the blockchain. The key points involved in blockchain technology include: decentralized, trustless, collectionlymaintain, reliabledatabase, timestamp, asymmetric encryption, etc.
 
        Blockchain technology redefines the way credit is generated in the network: in the system, participants do not need to know the background information of others, nor do they need to rely on the guarantee or guarantee of third-party institutions. Blockchain technology ensures that the system records, transmits and stores the activities of value transfer, and the final result must be credible. The source of blockchain technology principle can be summarized as a mathematical problem: Byzantine general problem. The Byzantine general problem extends to Internet life, and its connotation can be summarized as follows: in the context of the Internet, when people need to carry out value exchange activities with unfamiliar opponents, how can people prevent them from being deceived and confused by malicious saboteurs, so as to make wrong decisions.
 
        The Byzantine general problem is further extended to the technical field, and its connotation can be summarized as: in the absence of trusted central nodes and trusted channels, how should the nodes distributed in the network reach a consensus. Blockchain technology solves the well-known Byzantine general problem &mdash& mdash; It provides a way to create a consensus network without trusting a single node. The essence of blockchain technology is an internet protocol. Imagine that if we want to establish a global database in the Internet world now, we will face three urgent problems, which are also the core of blockchain technology design: problem 1: how to establish a rigorous database so that the database can store a large amount of information, while ensuring the integrity of the database without a centralized structure? Question 2: how to record and store this rigorous database so that even if some nodes involved in data recording crash, we can still ensure the normal operation and complete information of the whole database system? Question 3: how to make this rigorous and complete stored database reliable, so that we can successfully prevent fraud under the background of no real name on the Internet? In response to these three core issues, blockchain has built a complete and coherent set of database technologies to achieve its purpose, and the technologies to solve these three issues have also become the three core technologies of blockchain.
 
        In addition, in order to ensure the evolution and scalability of blockchain technology, blockchain system designers also introduced the concept of "script" to realize the programmability of the database. We believe that these four technologies constitute the core technology of blockchain. 2、 The core technology of blockchain core technology 1: block + chain about how to establish a rigorous database, the method of blockchain is: innovate the structure of the database, divide the data into different blocks, and each block is linked to the back of the previous block through specific information to present a complete set of data, which is also the source of the three words "blockchain". Block: in blockchain technology, data is permanently stored in the form of electronic records. The files storing these electronic records are called "blocks".
 
        Blocks are generated one by one in chronological order. Each block records all value exchange activities that occurred during its creation, and all blocks are aggregated to form a record collection. Blockstructure: the transaction data in the block generation time period will be recorded in the block, and the block subject is actually a collection of transaction information. The structural design of each blockchain may be different, but the large structure is divided into two parts: header and body. The block header is used to link to the previous block and provide integrity assurance for the blockchain database. The block body contains all the verified records of value exchange during the block creation process.
 
        The block structure has two very important characteristics: first, the transactions recorded in each block are all value exchange activities that occurred after the formation of the previous block and before the block was created, which ensures the integrity of the database. Second, in most cases, once the new block is added to the end of the blockchain, the data records of this block can no longer be changed or deleted. This feature ensures the rigor of the database, that is, it cannot be tampered with. As the name suggests, blockchain refers to the combination of blocks in the way of chain. The database formed in this way is called blockchain database. Blockchain is a transaction database shared by all nodes in the system. These nodes participate in the blockchain network based on the value exchange protocol.
 
        How does blockchain do it? Since the header of each block contains the compressed value of the transaction information of the previous block, this makes the creation block (the first block) connected to the current block to form a long chain. Since there is no way to generate the current block without knowing the "transaction miniature" value of the previous block, each block must follow the previous block in chronological order. This structure that all blocks contain references from the previous block makes the existing block set form a long data chain. The data storage structure of "block + Chain" is shown in the following figure. We quote a passage from blockchain: the end of Internet Finance (Xiao Feng) to summarize the basic structure of blockchain: "people pack the information (including data or code) generated over a period of time into a block, stamp it with a timestamp, and connect it with the previous block, every next block
 
        
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