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"Blockchain 100 points" issue 12 - blockchain technology in the post digital legal currency Era,Blockchains are divided into several categories

Time : 06/01/2022 Author : 1qzho7 Click : + -
        Hello, Miss Bai. I invite Miss Bai to share with you, which reminds me of history. The form of activities is the same as that of sharing in the current group. Mr. Bai is the first speech expert with 100 points of big data. Mr. Bai was the chief engineer of Shanghai Stock Exchange at that time. The understanding and application of big data is unparalleled. Mr. Bai's sharing laid the academic height of 100 points for the whole big data and the depth of engineering application. We are all members of the big data expert committee of the Chinese computer society. We met at the last CCF meeting. Ask Mr. Bai about the problem of digital economy, and then I know that Mr. Bai has a deep understanding of digital currency and digital economy.
        As early as November of 12 years ago, we jointly held the first conference on data science and application at Peking University with Academician e Weinan. Mr. Bai was the heavyweight guest of that conference. In the group photos of many academicians, teacher Bai sat in the middle. Now the alliance is spreading the concept of blockchain. Special attention is paid to the further integration with the real economy after the integration of new technologies such as blockchain big data. So I invited Mr. Bai to share with you. Let's welcome Miss Bai. Bai Shuo: Hello, everyone. I'm Bai Shuo. I'm glad to come to blockchain 100 to share at the invitation of our old friend Secretary General Guodong. Guodong's memory just now also brought me back briefly to four years ago.
        In today's communication, I am no longer the chief engineer of the exchange, but an explorer focusing on Technology in the blockchain world. As you know, many events have taken place in the blockchain field in recent months. Libra plan made a brilliant debut, and encountered various obstacles in the process of promotion. It remains to be seen whether the outcome is "no cross-border or death" or a compromise to accept the recruitment; China's digital currency plan has revealed an amazing tip of the iceberg; 1024 important speech, marking that China has incorporated blockchain technology into the innovation strategy system; The regulatory authorities thundered out to suppress various illegal and criminal acts under the banner of blockchain; There are waves of learning blockchain knowledge in party, government and military organs at all levels.
        The whole situation can be said to be the general mobilization of thousands of troops. Zhao Guodong, Secretary General of Zhongguancun big data industry alliance, deputy leader of national big data strategy 1142 project, is currently an independent director of listed companies Lanxin technology, Fubang Co., Ltd., ovicloud, a member of the expert base of the Ministry of industry and information technology, a member of the big data expert committee of the Chinese computer society, a director of the first auxiliary think tank, and a founder and academic member of Pangu think tank. Distinguished tutor of School of economics and management, Beijing University of Posts and telecommunications. Author of historical opportunities in the era of big data, industrial Internet, digital ecology, blockchain world, blockchain and big data. Bai Shuo, a doctor and researcher, has successively studied at Tsinghua University and Peking University, an advisory member of the blockchain special committee of the Chinese computer society, an executive director of the Chinese information society, a former chief engineer of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, and a doctoral supervisor of the Institute of computing and the Institute of information technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
        For blockchain practitioners, a good situation will form an encouraging side, and there will certainly be a confusing side to breaking into no man's land for the first time. The most prominent point is: if the digital version of legal currency comes, how will the development trend of blockchain technology ecosystem be different? How to play blockchain? Is legal digital currency put into the old ecosystem, or together with legal digital currency to create a new ecosystem? Or has there never been a stable old ecosystem, and the ecosystem has been changing?. I think that before and after, there will be obvious differences and generational changes. This generational change will continue to dominate for a long time, so that when people talk about blockchain 10 years later, they first think of the changed one.
        This is why I want to use this topic to communicate with you today. What role does blockchain play in the digitalization process? The process of digitalization is not based on our will. Trust is an indispensable element in our social life. The digitalization, automation and unmanned of trust is an unavoidable obstacle in the digitalization process. Let's look at some pictures. This is a relatively primitive situation. The trust between people, people and institutions, institutions and institutions is basically point-to-point. We abstract it into "you me" mode. This is the situation after the social division of labor gradually developed. Trust between people, people and institutions, institutions and institutions is mainly achieved through intermediaries ("he" or "they").
        We abstract it into "you me him" mode. With the continuous development of information technology, the "others" in the above figure cannot always be connected in series in the process, which is not only inefficient, but also has some potential factors that are not conducive to trust in people and even institutions. Therefore, seeking automated and unmanned trust facilities is a matter of great value and a sense of mission in the context of human digitalization. When it comes to blockchain, many people suddenly associate a keyword: decentralization. In fact, from centralization to decentralization is a continuum, with many intermediate states; Whether it is decentralized or not also has many observation dimensions. It can be completely centralized in one dimension and decentralized in others. This is what I call decoupling.
        Recently, I have analyzed the possibility of this decoupling from three aspects, which can be summarized as "three no hindrances". Here to share with you. First, the centralization of bookkeeping rights does not hinder the decentralization of supervision rights. Generally, it is divided into public chain, alliance chain and private chain according to the accounting right mode, but it does not mean that moving a centralized thing to the alliance chain is called blockchain, nor does it mean that the alliance chain has only one accounting right, which is a misunderstanding. We divide this right into three kinds: Bookkeeping right, supervision right and use right. We often see the publicity of some alliance chains. It is said that there are millions or tens of millions of users at first, but those people are indifferent to blockchain. Whether you say you are a blockchain or not, it has nothing to do with them.
        The core is who has the right to keep accounts, and to whom do these people prove their innocence? If you still prove your innocence to the same batch of people, there will be no separation of bookkeeping rights and supervision rights. In this case, centralization is still very serious. We emphasize a point of view that when identifying a good blockchain application mode, we need to see how these three rights are distributed. If only a centralized business logic is moved to our alliance chain, this is not a good application mode. So the first strange phenomenon we see is that these people basically overlap. This is not a good structure. The vast majority of people with access rights have no feelings for blockchain, and it is not a good structure. Of course, self certification can be self certified at several levels. Relationships, ledgers, original codes, etc. all need different technical routes.
        This is a relatively good model. It solves the overlapping of bookkeeping rights and supervision. Some people supervise and others keep accounts. These people prove their innocence. If they prove their innocence to everyone, it is better. This is called a self certifiable ecosystem. There is a foundation here. A lot of work is easy to verify and difficult to obtain. Therefore, bookkeepers do more difficult things to "obtain", while verifiers do relatively easy things to "verify". It is the person who has the right to supervise to verify it. These two roles should be separated. Second, the centralization of distribution does not hinder the decentralization of circulation. Some people are affected by bitcoin. When it comes to issuing, they think of mining, that is, they only generate increment on the chain.
        In fact, this is not certain. The increment can come from outside the chain. Take a look at erc20. This increment comes from outside the chain, and you are no stranger; The increment comes from the central bank, which is not a big deal. I think it is acceptable, but in terms of architecture, the issue of centralization is optional. Circulation is different. Circulation is the conservation of value. Value cannot be double issued or overdrawn in the flow. This structure must choose an independent living space, and it is absolutely necessary to form a value Internet in the future. Let's take a look at the legal digital currency issued by the central bank. At present, there is no flow foundation, but once it is imported in batches and promoted with the help of administrative power, the flow brought by it cannot be underestimated.
        What structure will be adopted for the circulation of digital legal currency? This depends on the regulatory demands of the central bank and the experience demands of consumers. Among them, the most important is to "not only see through the transaction, but also protect the privacy of consumers". Third, the centralization of account books does not hinder the decentralization of contracts. You can see on the left is the current practice in the blockchain supply chain, and decoupling also does the same. On the right is open banking. Our traditional financial practice is that there are two bottom layers, one is the blockchain ledger, and the other is the API of basic banking services. What are the semantics of the middle two and how to deal with its disposal rights? These open banks are the same as smart contracts, but they are different. One runs on virtual clusters and the other on third-party hardware.
        In fact, there is a complete possibility that open banking and smart contracts will eventually run on virtual clusters. It doesn't matter whether the bottom layer is decentralized, as long as the final running environment is the same, so there is such a solution path. The ecosystem of payment will be fundamentally changed. In addition to Alipay / wechat, we will add an e-cash wallet to our portable mobile communication devices. There are many descriptions of this aspect on the Internet, and we will not repeat it here. Services involving pure trust will be popular. Services such as deposit certificate traceability may become more intensive and commercialized, penetrating all walks of life.
        Injecting and detecting evidence by physical means and Internet of things may become a natural extension of blockchain certificate storage and traceability services. Convenient means of payment will be synchronized with pure trust services, so that pure trust services can be effectively guaranteed by digital legal currency payment. A lot of business logic involving trust and value will pass through. Many blockchain applications we have done before can only be bypassed when we come to the real transaction link because of the absence of legal digital currency. After the legal digital currency comes out, the banks can participate in this link openly, and the process is really straight through. In my personal opinion, after the introduction of legal digital currency, domestic high-performance public chain construction and cross chain technology (Alliance chain public chain) will flourish; Domestic intermediaries will quickly take measures to reduce the trust cost of the whole society; Blockchain governance, real name system and supervision will be strengthened; The "last mile" of banks will be fully rolled out.
        Blockchain supported by legal digital currency will be widely used in the real economy, social life and government applications, ”Zero account period "It is no longer a dream. Although smart contracts are not supported at the beginning, it is a natural thing to realize programmable digital legal currency in the future. The adoption of privacy protection technology is the proper meaning of legal digital currency circulation. Blockchain takes advantage of legal digital currency to land in all industries, which is bound to trigger a large demand for data privacy protection. The demand for privacy protection will not only optimize heavy weapons such as multi-party secure computing, but also give birth to All kinds of light weapons that change on demand. What you are most concerned about may be: what opportunities do we have? I personally believe that "blockchain operators" may emerge as a new species.
        "Blockchain technology suppliers" will undergo a series of restructuring and integration, and will be deeply integrated with traditional IT suppliers and financial technology suppliers. Institutions such as "blockchain technical standards and evaluation" will play a huge role in making responsible and auditable evaluations of the security and performance indicators of blockchain systems whose code cannot be open source. Blockchain education, scientific research, training and consulting will also have great development. As a scholar, I am particularly concerned about the future progress of blockchain research. I think being too eager for quick success is a deficiency of the previous blockchain technology development. More scholars should settle down and study some more basic problems of blockchain.
        For example, the efficiency of consensus, the efficiency of storage, the resistance to quantum attacks, the formal verification of smart contracts, and so on, are all research directions that can dig out big treasures. I sincerely hope that Chinese scholars can make remarkable achievements in these aspects. Bai Shuo: if we don't seek "borderless", the stable currency can be just a form of circulation of legal digital currency, or an expanded form of business district currency. Zhao Guodong: now it seems that Libra provides a mechanism for issuing money to every ecosystem. Any ecosystem can issue its own stable currency. Bai Shuo: for example, you can only see hashes (as much as the public can see), you can't see content, you can only run and maintain infrastructure, and you will charge a certain operating fee.
        Bai Shuo: I have said before that decentralization is not about "referees" or "caddies", but some "players" who act as intermediaries. Operators are equivalent to "caddies". Bai Shuo: Super sovereign currencies, super sovereign user groups and super sovereign economies are ideal if they can be built on mutual support. Bai Shuo: in addition, the relationship between Seigniorage and blockchain "technology" is really not great. Blockchain technology can be applied under various seigniorage arrangements.
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