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How many kinds of blockchain structures do you know?

Time : 21/01/2022 Author : ng2elw Click : + -
        Blockchain is the underlying development technology of bitcoin, which is well known. However, as an underlying development technology, blockchain needs to process data and run in a hierarchical structure. The data layer is the bottom layer of the six hierarchical structures of blockchain. We can understand it as a database, but for blockchain, it is a database that cannot be tampered with and has distributed characteristics. On the data layer, all the data information on the blockchain is stored. From the creation block that does not record transactions to the chain structure formed by constantly adding blocks, which encapsulates hash values, timestamp of authentication transactions, transaction information, public and private keys, etc., to ensure the security of all data when the data is made public in the whole network.
        On the blockchain network, the consensus algorithm is used between nodes to maintain the consistency of data layer data. Through asymmetric encryption and hash algorithm in cryptography, the data information in this distributed database can not be tampered with and traced. However, the data layer alone is not enough. In order to realize the sharing and exchange of data information, we also need the support of the network layer. Blockchain network system mainly includes point-to-point mechanism, data transmission and verification mechanism. It is essentially a P2P network, and point-to-point means that there is no need for a centralized server to operate the system. All resources and services in the network are allocated to each node. On the blockchain network, nodes need to jointly maintain this system. When a node creates a new block, it will inform other nodes through broadcasting. The node that receives the information will verify the block, and then create a new block.
        In this way, each node can not only generate information, but also receive information, and jointly maintain the integrity of the whole system through point-to-point methods, such as lightning network, lightning network and other layer 2 payment protocols. For blockchain, the consensus layer mainly includes consensus algorithm mechanism. That is to form a unified rule agreed by all nodes in the whole network to maintain and update the general ledger of the blockchain system. Making highly decentralized nodes reach an efficient consensus in the decentralized blockchain network is one of the core technologies of blockchain and the governance mechanism of blockchain community. So far, there are more than a dozen consensus mechanisms, such as bitcoin proof of work (POW), Ethereum proof of entitlement (POS), EOS entrusted proof of entitlement (dpos).
        In blockchain, the incentive layer mainly includes incentive mechanism and distribution mechanism. Generally speaking, the incentive layer refers to the reward for mining in the blockchain, which encourages miners to verify transaction information by rewarding some digital assets, so as to maintain the continuous mining activities and account book updates. In the consensus mechanism of bitcoin, it is stipulated that whoever can find the correct hash value first can get a certain number of bitcoin rewards; The workload proof mechanism of Ethereum stipulates that the longer the age of holding money, the greater the probability of obtaining rewards. However, the incentive layer is generally only available in the public chain, because the public chain must rely on the nodes of the whole network to jointly maintain data, so such an incentive mechanism can enable the nodes of the whole network to participate in the construction and maintenance of the blockchain system, so as to ensure the security and reliability of the blockchain system.
        The contract layer mainly includes various scripts, codes, smart contracts and algorithms, which is the basis of blockchain programmability. At ordinary times, the "smart contract" we call belongs to this level. The principle of smart contract is to achieve real-time operability by embedding the code into the system and setting constraints without endorsement by a third party. As the name suggests, the application layer is actually what we usually call various application scenarios and cases of blockchain, similar to applications on computer operating systems, portals on Internet browsers, e-malls or apps on mobile phones, etc. now "blockchain +" is the so-called application layer. At present, blockchain applications that have been launched in the market are basically various applications built on public chains such as Ethereum and EOS, mainly gambling and game applications.
        In blockchain, all levels are independent and inseparable from each other. Generally speaking, the data layer and network layer are divided into protocol layer, contract layer and incentive layer are divided into expansion layer. Understanding the six structural layers of blockchain and the corresponding hierarchical functions can help us deepen our new understanding of blockchain technology. Previously, we introduced that the four core technologies of blockchain are its unique data structure, distributed storage, cryptography and consensus mechanism. Today, let's talk about the six hierarchical structures of blockchain structure and see what their respective roles are? What is the connection between them?. Datalayer is equivalent to the data structure in the four core technologies of blockchain, namely the structure of "block + Chain".
        Since the creation block that has not recorded transaction information, it has been adding new blocks until now. The chain structure consists of hash value, random number, timestamp of authentication transaction, transaction information data, public key and private key, etc. it is the lowest data structure in the whole blockchain technology. Networklayer is similar to distributed storage in the four core technologies, mainly point-to-point mechanism, data dissemination mechanism and data verification mechanism. Distributed algorithms and encrypted signatures are implemented in the network layer. In this way, all nodes on the blockchain maintain contact and jointly maintain the entire blockchain ledger. The more familiar are layer 2 payment protocols such as lightning network and lightning network.
        The consensus layer is equivalent to the consensus mechanism in the four core technologies, mainly including the consensus algorithm mechanism. So far, there are more than a dozen consensus mechanisms, such as pow, POS, dpos, combination of POW and POS, combustion proof, importance proof, etc. Data layer, network layer and consensus layer constitute the bottom foundation of blockchain level, and are also three essential elements of blockchain. Without any one, they cannot be called lines Expansion elements of blockchain technology. Contractlayer is naturally related to the smart contract we hear most often. When the code is written into the contract, the constraints can be customized. There is no need for a third-party trust endorsement, and the real-time operation will be carried out immediately when the time comes.
        Of course, in addition to smart contracts, it is an important level of blockchain as a trust machine. There are also some other script codes, side chain applications, and so on. The applicationlayer is very simple, similar to various apps on mobile phones, that is, various application scenarios of blockchain. For example, bitcoin and Ethereum are blockchain application projects. This level includes all aspects of blockchain application in the future. The six levels are independent and inseparable from each other. Understanding the relationship between levels and the relevant knowledge of each level will form an overall cognition and systematic understanding of blockchain. Blockchain is the underlying development technology of bitcoin, which is well known.
        However, as an underlying development technology, blockchain needs to process data and run in a hierarchical structure. Data layer /datalayer data layer is the bottom layer of the six hierarchical structures of blockchain. We can understand it as a database, but for blockchain, it is a database that cannot be tampered with and has distributed characteristics. On the data layer, all the data information on the blockchain is stored. From the Chuangshi block without recording transactions to the chain of constantly adding blocks. First of all, we need to know that blockchain is a new application mode of computer technology such as distributed data storage, point-to-point transmission, consensus mechanism and encryption algorithm. Secondly, as for the composition structure of blockchain system, jinwowo Group believes that it is composed of data layer, network layer, consensus layer, incentive layer, contract layer and application layer.
        1. Data layer: it encapsulates the underlying data blocks and related technologies such as data encryption and timestamp. 2. Network layer: it includes distributed networking mechanism, data transmission mechanism and data verification mechanism; 3. Consensus layer: it mainly encapsulates various consensus algorithms of network nodes. In most cases, ICO, IEO and sto are raising funds for the commercialization of new technology concepts. In order to start ICO, IEO and STO, startups need to prepare a white paper, which should include project objectives, technology, funds required, the number of tokens held by the project founding team and the way they are used, and the duration of crowdfunding activities.
        Sto is more like IPO than ICO and IEO. The issuance of securities tokens (STO) is similar to the initial public offering (IPO) on the blockchain. Sto is subject to strict regulation. In 2014, joelmonegro, a famous American venture capitalist, proposed an important concept called "blockchainstack" at the bitcoin workshophackbit party in New York, and said that this is the structure of Internet applications he wants in ten years. This structure is composed of multiple parallel independent but mutually influencing networks, and it is the basic framework of blockchain network.
        Generally speaking, blockchainstack can be divided into protocol layer, extension layer and application layer. Among them, the agreement. In a word, blockchain is a security system, and the currency used on this basis is cryptocurrency. Without blockchain technology, in fact, all cryptocurrencies, like acorn of Saiwo, become units that can only exist on specific websites. However, the cryptocurrency based on blockchain can record the transaction details transparently in the account book that anyone can consult. The decentralized data storage technology, which is copied and stored in multiple computers, has multiple computers to verify the records to prevent hackers' attacks. Take the bank as an example, manage electronic certificates and OTP cards in one place of the bank.
        Blockchain technology is leading a new round of technological and industrial changes in the world, and promoting the transformation from "information internet" to "value Internet". Public information shows that blockchain is an accounting technology, also known as distributed ledger technology, which is jointly maintained by many parties, uses cryptography to ensure transmission and access security, and can achieve consistent data storage, difficult to tamper with, and prevent repudiation. "How to keep the system with possible fraudulent nodes in normal operation and output credible results is the core problem that blockchain needs to solve." The founding team are all from the interest chain technology of Zhejiang University.
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