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Blockchain Internet of things,What are the problems with the identification management of IOT devices based on blockchain technology?

Time : 08/01/2022 Author : p73snf Click : + -
        What are the problems with the identification management of IOT devices based on blockchain technology? In fact, in the traditional identity management scheme, the registration server is used to centrally allocate digital identities to IOT devices, and an identity mapping relationship is built between digital identities and IOT devices. Once the mapping relationship is built, the central server will centrally store the data structure containing the mapping relationship. After that, various management operations of digital identification are performed by the server. Centralized management is prone to single point of failure, easy disclosure of user privacy, and low processing efficiency. In addition, the number of devices in the Internet of things is large, the computing power is weak, and it is not directly connected to the Internet.
 
        The above two reasons make the identification management scheme in the internet no longer suitable for the Internet of things, so it is necessary to design an identification management scheme of the Internet of things that can not only meet the characteristics of the Internet of things, but also ensure the privacy and security of users. As a distributed technology, blockchain can just meet the above requirements. Therefore, the research topic of this paper is to realize the identification management of IOT devices based on blockchain technology. In order to allow each IOT device to manage its own identity, this paper further establishes three technical issues, as follows. The first problem in the research of IOT identity management based on blockchain: what technologies or methods can IOT devices use to independently generate digital identities in the decentralized mode.
 
        As the only identity of IOT devices in the network, digital identity is the proof of all activities of IOT devices in the network. Because digital identification can correspond to IOT devices, digital identification is usually used to prove the identity of IOT devices in the process of data transmission and data collection. In the traditional identity management scheme, because the registration server is used to centrally allocate digital identities to IOT devices, there will be no case that one identity corresponds to multiple IOT devices. Because there is no trust server in this paper, how to make other IOT devices verify the authenticity of the identification generated by a device is the primary technical problem to be solved in this paper.
 
        In order to facilitate other IOT devices to verify the authenticity of the logo, it is necessary to make clear provisions on the meaning of the authenticity of the logo. According to the application requirements of IOT identity management, the authenticity of identity can be further understood as the uniqueness of identity in a jurisdiction and identity can represent IOT devices. The technical problem is further decomposed into two sub technical problems. The first is how to ensure that the generated identification is unique in the decentralized mode. The second problem in the research of IOT identity management based on blockchain: which technologies or methods of trusted identity publishing can be used by IOT devices in decentralized mode. As an important part of decentralized identity management, the trusted release of identity is an important operation for IOT devices to participate in identity management independently.
 
        As a prerequisite for Internet of things devices to establish communication, the process of issuing identification of Internet of things devices must be trusted. When Internet of things devices independently issue digital logos to notify other Internet of things devices, it must be ensured that there is no fake release of malicious devices in the process, that is, the process of realizing logo release can be verified. Under the decentralized mode, how to ensure that the process of Internet of things device issuing logo is credible is the second technical problem to be solved in this paper. Specifically, the logo publishing process can be embodied as a data model. Data credibility verification consists of data source verification, data transmission verification and data destination verification.
 
        In the process of identity publishing, the data source can be regarded as the identity provider, and the data transmission and data destination can be regarded as the integrity of the identity in the transmission process. Through the above analysis, to verify the authenticity of the logo publishing process, we need to further consider how to verify the authenticity of the identity of the initiator of the logo publishing operation and the integrity of the digital logo in the publishing process. The third problem in the research of IOT identity management based on blockchain: which technologies or methods of identity authenticity verification can be used by IOT devices in decentralized mode. As the key link of decentralized identification management, the authenticity verification of digital identification is the ultimate goal of identification management of IOT devices.
 
        As the only way for Internet of things devices to establish communication connections, the authenticity verification of identification is the infrastructure of access control. Once the identification of the IOT device is verified, access to the device is allowed. In the decentralized mode, there is no central certification authority to provide digital certificates to Internet of things devices to prove their identity, so we need to consider designing a authenticity verification mechanism of identification to prove the identity of Internet of things devices. In the public chain, any node is allowed to join the blockchain network at any time and place without restriction, and is given the rights to publish transactions, view transactions, participate in consensus, etc. In order to make the nodes of the whole network recognize the new block, the incentive mechanism and workload certification machine are used in the public chain to solve this problem.
 
        Alliance chain and private chain are collectively referred to as license chain, because nodes joining these two types of blockchain networks must be authorized to join. The difference between the alliance chain and the private chain is that the openness of the alliance chain is greater than that of the private chain. Several alliance members jointly formulate the read-write and consensus rules in the blockchain. Through the above analysis, it is very necessary to choose a suitable blockchain for different application fields. The identification management of the Internet of things based on blockchain is a non digital currency application based on blockchain, which does not need to disclose the ledger to the whole network like the bitcoin blockchain. The blockchain network of this scheme is oriented to IOT devices, and most IOT devices have the characteristics of weak computing power and limited storage capacity, so this scheme does not choose the public chain as the type of identity management application chain.
 
        For simplicity, this scheme assumes that the application manager of identity management builds a private chain to record the operation of self-management identity of IOT devices. This highly privatized blockchain type, on the one hand, improves the efficiency of identity management, on the other hand, adapts to the characteristics of Internet of things devices. In the construction of private chain, one or more central institutions usually formulate authentication rules, and then the authorized nodes can join the private chain. The private chain construction of this scheme also considers that the application manager selects at least three trusted initial nodes of the blockchain to form a private chain, and stipulates that every IOT device newly added to the private chain must be verified online.
 
        Only devices that have passed the authentication can manage the identity in the private chain according to the previously agreed rules. Among them, the trusted initial node of the blockchain can be the Internet of things gateway, because the Internet of things gateway has strong computing power and processing ability, and has the ability of transaction verification and block verification. Because each Internet of things device generates digital identification independently, which will cause confusion and difficult to verify, the research content is devoted to the authenticity representation of digital identification of Internet of things devices in the decentralized mode. Aiming at the authenticity meaning of identification, this paper further subdivides the authenticity representation of digital identification into two sub problems: the uniqueness calibration of digital identification and the verifiable identification of digital identification.
 
        Identity refers to the metadata that can uniquely represent an entity in a domain. Under the research background of this topic, a certain field can be interpreted as the Internet of things environment. Accordingly, the digital ID in this paper refers to a set of metadata that can uniquely represent the IOT devices in the IOT environment. More specifically, the Internet of things environment also includes smart homes, smart communities, smart cities and other application scenarios. Devices in the IOT application scenario need to be connected to the Internet through the IOT gateway. First, the cloud processing center processes the data collected by the IOT device, and then relies on big data, machine learning and other technologies to realize intelligent applications to better serve mankind.
 
        In such a scenario, digital identification, as the first barrier to establish a secure connection between IOT devices, plays a very important role. In the traditional identification management scheme, the central server is responsible for managing the digital identification of IOT devices in one or more service areas. Among them, the digital ID of the Internet of things device comes from the registration server. If other IOT devices want to verify the authenticity of IOT devices, they only need to send a verification request to the registration server or the verification server, and the server will feed back the authenticity verification results of the identification. In the traditional scheme, the authenticity of the identification of IOT devices completely depends on the reliability of the central server. Once the central server has fraud or is attacked, it will bring great damage to the communication security between IOT devices.
 
        Abandoning the central server and allowing every IOT device to participate in identity management can resist the security and privacy problems brought about by traditional identity management solutions. Therefore, how to provide the identification generated by IOT devices for other devices to verify has become a technical problem that needs to be solved. Blockchain technology, as a trust management mechanism, allows each participant in the blockchain to independently publish transactions, and the verified transactions will be permanently recorded in the public ledger. The decentralization, non tamperability and traceability of blockchain provide a new solution to the identification management of IOT devices. As an application domain, blockchain can ensure that every transaction recorded in the public ledger is credible. Based on this application feature, this paper will consider building a decentralized identification management domain based on blockchain.
 
        Compared with the traditional identity management domain, IOT devices, as the participants of identity management, jointly constitute a blockchain, that is, a decentralized identity management domain. In the identity management domain, the digital ID generated by each IOT device is unique, and there is a one-to-one mapping relationship between the digital ID and the IOT device. The first consideration is how to make the Internet of things devices as participants connect with each other independently to form the identity management domain without the control of the central node. The second consideration is what kind of digital identity can be designed to uniquely represent the Internet of things devices in the identity management domain.
 
        
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